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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients grouped by sdLDL-C quartile

From: Relationship between small dense low density lipoprotein and cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

sdLDL-C Total Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 p value*
< 18.5 mg/dL 18.5–25.5 mg/dL 25.5–35.1 mg/dL ≥ 35.1 mg/dL
N (%) 6092 (100) 1593 (26.1) 1479 (24.3) 1516 (24.9) 1504 (24.7)
Age, y 60.2 ± 10.13 62.1 ± 9.9 60.7 ± 9.97 59.6 ± 9.71 58.2 ± 10.54 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 4586 (75.3) 1229 (77.2) 1140 (77.1) 1143 (75.4) 1074 (71.4) 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 25.9 ± 3.33 25.2 ± 3.27 25.8 ± 3.27 26.3 ± 3.38 26.4 ± 3.26 < 0.001
Obesity, n (%) 1397 (24.1) 284 (18.8) 327 (23.1) 403 (27.7) 383 (27.1) < 0.001
Heart rate, bpm 72.1 ± 12.02 71.6 ± 11.29 71.9 ± 12.12 72.1 ± 12.03 73.1 ± 12.59 0.004
SBP, mmHg 128.2 ± 21.14 126.9 ± 20.8 128.3 ± 21.17 128.1 ± 21.22 129.6 ± 21.32 0.005
Medical history and risk factors, n (%)
Current smoker 2200 (36.1) 509 (32) 549 (37.1) 542 (35.8) 600 (39.9) < 0.001
Hypertension 3941 (64.7) 1029 (64.6) 914 (61.8) 1024 (67.5) 974 (64.8) 0.013
Diabetes 2712 (44.5) 692 (43.4) 642 (43.4) 658 (43.4) 720 (47.9) 0.028
Dyslipidaemia 4512 (74.1) 1123 (70.5) 1077 (72.8) 1118 (73.7) 1194 (79.4) < 0.001
Previous MI 723 (11.9) 199 (12.5) 191 (12.9) 190 (12.5) 143 (9.5) 0.013
Previous Stroke 278 (4.6) 88 (5.5) 62 (4.2) 73 (4.8) 55 (3.7) 0.075
Previous PCI 1453 (23.9) 386 (24.2) 388 (26.2) 358 (23.6) 321 (21.3) 0.019
Previous CABG 153 (2.5) 48 (3) 36 (2.4) 37 (2.4) 32 (2.1) 0.456
Laboratory tests
Cr, μmol/L 77.9 ± 51.62 82 ± 69.37 77.1 ± 46.53 77.6 ± 47.82 74.7 ± 35.16 0.001
eGFR, ml/min/1.73m2 123.6 ± 36.4 121.3 ± 32.87 123.3 ± 29.6 123.4 ± 29.68 126.5 ± 49.61 0.001
FBG, mmol/L 7 ± 2.54 6.8 ± 2.32 6.9 ± 2.44 7 ± 2.42 7.4 ± 2.9 < 0.001
HbA1C,% 6.6 ± 1.38 6.5 ± 1.25 6.6 ± 1.3 6.6 ± 1.31 6.8 ± 1.6 < 0.001
TC, mg/dL 158.8 ± 41.14 124.4 ± 22.06 145.1 ± 25.08 164 ± 26.81 203.5 ± 39.17 < 0.001
TG, mg/dL 123.2 (88.5–176.2) 85.1 (65.1–107.6) 109.4 (86.8–145.8) 142.8 (109.4–189.2) 180.5 (137.1–243.9) < 0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL 41.4 ± 9.66 42.2 ± 10.16 41.3 ± 10.06 40.5 ± 9.44 41.5 ± 8.85 < 0.001
LDL-C, mg/dL 93.2 ± 34.31 65 ± 16.66 83.2 ± 20.12 97.4 ± 23.63 128.8 ± 35.87 < 0.001
hs-CRP, mg/L 1.35 (0.6–3.4) 1.0 (0.4–2.7) 1.2 (0.5–3.2) 1.5 (0.6–3.4) 1.8 (0.8–4.2) < 0.001
TNI, μg/L 0.9 ± 5.34 0.7 ± 4.87 0.5 ± 3.42 0.9 ± 5.46 1.5 ± 6.99 < 0.001
LVEF,% 61.2 ± 7.74 60.8 ± 7.65 61 ± 7.98 61.4 ± 7.61 61.6 ± 7.69 0.302
ACS type, n (%)
Unstable angina 5286 (86.8) 1410 (88.5) 1303 (88.1) 1303 (85.9) 1270 (84.4) 0.002
AMI 806 (13.2) 183 (11.5) 176 (11.9) 213 (14.1) 234 (15.6) -
Medication on admission, n (%)
Aspirin 4944 (81.2) 1298 (81.5) 1229 (83.1) 1215 (80.1) 1202 (79.9) 0.100
clopidogrel 3159 (52.3) 797 (50.5) 803 (54.7) 781 (52) 778 (52) 0.139
ticagrelor 918 (15.2) 231 (14.6) 209 (14.2) 244 (16.2) 234 (15.7) 0.392
statin 5062 (83.1) 1289 (80.9) 1220 (82.5) 1266 (83.5) 1287 (85.6) 0.006
Ezetimibe 668 (11) 147 (9.2) 151 (10.2) 168 (11.1) 202 (13.4) 0.002
Any antidiabetic agents 1285 (21.1) 344 (21.6) 298 (20.1) 301 (19.9) 342 (22.7) 0.181
Medication at discharge, n (%)
Aspirin 5956 (97.8) 1555 (97.6) 1451 (98.1) 1482 (97.8) 1468 (97.6) 0.77
clopidogrel 4289 (70.4) 1130 (70.9) 1059 (71.6) 1027 (67.7) 1073 (71.3) 0.071
ticagrelor 1803 (29.6) 463 (29.1) 420 (28.4) 489 (32.3) 431 (28.7) 0.071
ACEI/ARB 2655 (43.6) 673 (42.2) 652 (44.1) 688 (45.4) 642 (42.7) 0.284
β-Blocker 3926 (64.4) 1034 (64.9) 977 (66.1) 959 (63.3) 956 (63.6) 0.352
statin 5996 (98.4) 1567 (98.4) 1455 (98.4) 1492 (98.4) 1482 (98.5) 0.981
Ezetimibe 1219 (20) 259 (16.3) 255 (17.2) 331 (21.8) 374 (24.9) < 0.001
Any antidiabetic agents 2171 (35.6) 562 (35.3) 509 (34.4) 516 (34) 584 (38.8) 0.024
Angiographic Coronary anatomy, n (%)
Any left main disease 1029 (16.9) 262 (16.4) 223 (15.1) 273 (18) 271 (18) 0.094
Multivessel disease 3597 (59) 885 (55.6) 818 (55.3) 916 (60.4) 978 (65) < 0.001
Others 2290 (37.6) 648 (40.7) 619 (41.9) 546 (36) 477 (31.7) < 0.001
CTO 928 (15.2) 233 (14.6) 253 (17.1) 218 (14.4) 224 (14.9) 0.141
Lesions > 20 mm 3703 (60.8) 955 (59.9) 844 (57.1) 918 (60.6) 986 (65.6) < 0.001
Syntax 14 ± 7.49 14.1 ± 7.39 13.5 ± 6.97 14.5 ± 7.97 14 ± 7.55 0.04
Treated vessel, n (%)
LM 623 (10.2) 164 (10.3) 138 (9.3) 166 (10.9) 155 (10.3) 0.537
LAD 3143 (51.6) 833 (52.3) 748 (50.6) 775 (51.1) 787 (52.3) 0.709
LCX 1763 (28.9) 425 (26.7) 423 (28.6) 454 (29.9) 461 (30.7) 0.074
RCA 2436 (40.0) 647 (40.6) 585 (39.6) 614 (40.5) 590 (39.2) 0.824
DCB 375 (6.2) 110 (6.9) 83 (5.6) 89 (5.9) 93 (6.2) 0.471
FFR 31 (0.5) 14 (0.9) 5 (0.3) 6 (0.4) 6 (0.4) 0.117
IVUS 137 (2.2) 41 (2.6) 44 (3.0) 35 (2.3) 17 (1.1) 0.005
OCT 108 (1.8) 31 (1.9) 23 (1.6) 27 (1.8) 27 (1.8) 0.877
Number of stents 1.7 ± 0.82 1.7 ± 0.82 1.6 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.84 1.7 ± 0.82 0.068
Total length of stents, mm 39.9 ± 24.5 39.1 ± 25.56 38.8 ± 23.24 41.1 ± 24.7 40.4 ± 24.52 0.323
  1. Values are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%). *p value for test of difference group of participants according to sdLDL-C quartile by one-way Analysis of Variance or χ2 test. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Cr creatinine, UA Uric Acid, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C Glycosylated haemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, sdLDL-C, Small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, AMI acute myocardial infarction, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CTO chronic total occlusion, LM left-main artery, LAD left anterior descending artery, LCX left circumflex artery,RCA right coronary artery, DCB drug-coated balloon, FFR Fractional Flow Reserve, IVUS intravascular ultrasound, OCT optical coherence tomography