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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis for factors associated with QTc prolongation

From: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and QTc prolongation

Clinical factors Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Odds ratio 95% confidence interval P value Odds ratio 95% confidence interval P value
Age 1.03 1.01–1.04 0.003 1.01 0.99–1.04 0.210
Female sex 0.78 0.45–1.36 0.384
Hypertension 1.52 0.81–2.85 0.194
Diabetes mellitus 1.63 0.94–2.84 0.083
Cardiovascular disease 2.65 1.51–4.66 0.001 1.58 0.47–5.38 0.464
Ischemic heart disease 2.04 1.08–3.85 0.027 0.81 0.25–2.66 0.730
CHFrEF 1.97 0.62–6.24 0.248
CHFpEF 2.30 1.01–5.23 0.047 1.03 0.31–3.44 0.965
Atrial fibrillation 2.15 0.96–4.86 0.065
Chronic kidney disease 2.72 1.33–5.57 0.006 1.37 0.55–3.42 0.495
ESRD on HD 9.05 2.33–35.16 0.001 7.70 1.63–36.25 0.010
Peak creatinine 1.17 1.04–1.32 0.008
Chronic liver disease 2.81 0.91–8.66 0.073
Home medication       
ACEi 0.38 0.17–0.84 0.017 0.24 0.09–0.63 0.004
ARBs/ARNi 1.02 0.43–2.38 0.970
Hospital course and clinical outcome       
EKG findings       
Atrial fibrillation 1.81 0.76–4.30 0.180
Sustained VT 3.09 0.43–22.36 0.264
New BBB 5.09 2.14–12.09 < 0.001 5.20 1.72–15.67 0.003
Arrhythmia on admission 0.99 0.90–1.08 0.739
Arrhythmia in hospital course 3.00 1.50–6.02 0.002 1.70 0.43–2.67 0.886
High troponin I 2.08 1.11–3.90 0.022 2.11 0.93–4.80 0.982
Abnormal BNP 1.20 0.56–2.57 0.640
High d-dimer 1.98 0.99–3.95 0.055
Type 2 myocardial infarction 2.47 1.07–5.66 0.033 2.71 0.89–8.24 0.079
Death 1.68 0.82–3.41 0.154
Cost of hospitalization 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.658
In hospital: ACEi 0.37 0.12–0.97 0.043
Hydroxychloroquine 2.10 1.20–3.80 0.019 2.49 1.23–5.02 0.028
Azithromycin 3.25 1.44–7.32 0.041 2.87 1.11–9.23 0.045
Hydroxychloroquine AND Azithromycin 5.31 2.53–11.11 0.026 4.14 1.09–15.72 0.037
> 1 QT prolonging drug 3.03 1.70–5.40 < 0.001
  1. CHFpEF = congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, CHFrEF = congestive heart failure with reduced ejection, ARNI = angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, ESRD on HD = end stage renal disease on hemodialysis, VT = ventricular tachycardia, BBB = bundle branch block (complete left or right),