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Table 2 Patient outcomes and laboratory studies during hospitalization, and comparison of patients with and without QTc prolongation on EKG

From: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and QTc prolongation

Clinical course/outcome All patients (N = 279) QTc prolongation (N = 69) No QTc prolongation (N = 210) P value
Longest QTc measurement (msec) 446 ± 37 492 ± 27.2 (462–600) 431 ± 25.7 (294–471) < 0.001
Cardiac arrest, n (%) 1 (0.4) 0 1 (0.5) 0.566
EKG & cardiac rhythm abnormalities     
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 25 (9) 9 (13) 16 (8) 0.175
Sustained VT, n (%) 4 (1) 2 (3) 2 (1) 0.240
1st degree heart block, n (%) 6 (2) 4 (6) 2 (1) 0.016
2nd (Type 2) or 3rd degree heart block, n (%) 2 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.406
New left or right bundle branch block, n (%) 24 (9) 14 (20) 10 (5) < 0.001
Abnormal EKG, n (%) 102 (37) 58 (84) 44 (21) < 0.001
Any arrhythmia, n (%) 40 (14) 18 (26) 22 (11) 0.001
High troponin I, n (%) 58 (22) 21 (32) 37 (18) 0.021
Troponin I peak (ng/mL) 0.34 ± 1.50 0.86 ± 2.60 0.16 ± 0.88 0.001
Abnormal BNP, n (%) 45 (30) 14 (33) 31 (28) 0.640
BNP peak (pg/mL) 185 ± 299 277 ± 427 154 ± 236 0.064
High d-dimer, n (%) 193 (73) 54 (82) 139 (70) 0.052
D-dimer peak (ng/mL) 3254 ± 8868 3979 ± 9035 3019 ± 8824 0.463
Acute myocardial infarction (not Type 2), n (%) 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1) 0.416
Type 2 myocardial infarction, n (%) 26 (9) 11 (16) 15 (7) 0.029
Acute kidney injury, n (%) 111 (40) 34 (49) 77 (37) 0.063
Peak creatinine (mg/dL) 1.85 ± 2.15 2.50 ± 2.90 1.60 ± 1.80 0.004
New HD or CVVHD, n (%) 7 (3) 2 (3) 5 (2) 0.811
Hypokalemia, n (%) 44 (16) 15 (22) 29 (14) 0.117
Hypomagnesemia, n (%) 39 (14) 11 (16) 18 (13) 0.558
Invasive ventilation, n (%) 52 (19) 14 (20) 38 (18) 0.685
Shock of any type, n (%) 45 (16) 10 (15) 35 (17) 0.692
ARDS, n (%) 43 (16) 5 (7) 38 (18) 0.032
Ischemic Stroke, n (%) 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1) 0.415
DVT and/or PE, n (%) 11 (4) 2 (3) 9 (4) 0.603
Death, n (%) 42 (15) 14 (21) 28 (13) 0.151
Discharge     
Home, n (%) 74 (62) 33 (48) 141 (67) 0.023
SNF, n (%) 60 (22) 21 (30) 39 (19)  
LOS (days) 9 ± 9 10 ± 11 9 ± 8 0.572
Cost of hospitalization (US dollars) 92,973 ± 125,980 94,889 ± 126,219 87,142 ± 125,990 0.658
Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 177 (63) 52 (75) 125 (59) 0.018
Azithromycin, n (%) 27 (10) 13 (18) 14 (7) 0.034
Hydroxychloroquine AND Azithromycin, n (%) 35 (13) 20 (29) 15(7) < 0.001
> 1 QT prolonging drug, n (%) 108 (39) 41 (59) 67 (32) < 0.001
In hospital: ACEi/ARNI, n (%) 42 (15) 5 (7) 37 (18) 0.037
In hospital: ARBs, n (%) 32 (12) 9 (13) 23 (11) 0.636
  1. SI units for BNP (pmol/L) = ng/mL * 3.46
  2. SI units for creatinine (μmol/L) = mg/dL * 88.4
  3. SI units for troponin I (μg/L) = ng/ml * 1
  4. ARNI = angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, VT = ventricular tachycardia, ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome, PE = pulmonary embolism, HD = hemodialysis, CVVD = continuous venovenous hemodialysis, SNF = skilled nursing facility, LOS = length of stay