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Table 2 Summary of cost inputs associated with clinical inputs, 2018 U.S. Dollars

From: Cost-impact analysis of baroreflex activation therapy in chronic heart failure patients in the United States

Parameter 2018 $US
BAT $34,500
Heart failure medications, annual (a)
 ACE/ARB (b) $852.00
 Beta Blocker $34.20
 Digitalis $480.00
 Diuretics $144.00
 ARNI $6,109.44
 Ivabradine $5,309.04
 MRA (c) $503.76
 Other HF meds $1,299.32
CV non-HF hospitalization (d) $6,731.68
Heart failure hospitalizations $6,293.13
LVAD (e) $186,954.96
Heart transplant $173,846.71
BAT specific serious adverse events (f)
 Infections $11,842.98
 Prolonged intubation (requiring overnight stay) $2,527.66
 Abx allergic reaction (BAT implanted at later date) $4,824.03
 Heart failure exacerbation $2,527.66
 Acute respiratory failure (consequence of anesthesia) $10,565.57
 Pneumonia resulting in intubation $5,775.02
 Ischemic stroke $16,635.63
  1. Notes and sources: (a) based on estimated monthly costs for average recommended dosages, extrapolated to represent annual costs; (b) ACE = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB = angiotensin receptor blockers; (c) MRA = mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; (d) average of all CV non-HF hospitalization (6 month data); CV non-HF hospitalization include the following: Cardiac Arrhythmias/Cardiac Arrest, Hypotension/Syncope, Myocardial Infarction/Angina; (e) LVAD = left ventricular assist device; (f) two other BAT specific serious events [Prolonged Stay due to Dizziness; and Cranial Nerve Stimulation for Localized Neck Pain (341 days post implant)] occurred, but were not associated with any additional costs