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Table 1 Probabilities and expected number of occurrences per patient in BAT + GDT vs. GDT alone groups: Treatment, events, and serious adverse events

From: Cost-impact analysis of baroreflex activation therapy in chronic heart failure patients in the United States

Parameter 6 Month 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year
BAT + GDT GDT Alone BAT + GDT GDT Alone BAT + GDT GDT Alone BAT + GDT GDT Alone
Heart failure medications (a, b)
 ACE/ARB (c) 0.97 1.07 1.95 2.13 3.90 4.44 5.85 6.84
 Beta blocker 1.83 1.89 3.67 3.79 7.34 7.89 11.01 12.15
 Digitalis 0.22 0.25 0.43 0.50 0.86 1.04 1.30 1.60
 Diuretics 2.71 2.78 5.42 5.57 10.83 11.59 16.25 17.86
 ARNI (d) 0.60 0.73 1.21 1.46 1.98 3.24 2.60 5.18
 Ivabradine 0.07 0.07 0.13 0.14 0.26 0.30 0.39 0.46
 MRA (e) 0.62 0.63 1.24 1.26 2.47 2.63 3.71 4.05
 Other HF meds 1.05 1.31 2.09 2.61 4.18 5.44 6.27 8.38
Cardiovascular Hospitalization (non-HF) Rate, Relative Reduction = 25% (f) 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.3 0.40 0.45 0.60
Heart failure hospitalizations, relative reduction = 25% (f) 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.35 0.53 0.70 0.79 1.05
LVAD (g) 0.00% 1.64% 0.50% 3.25% 0.50% 6.40% 0.50% 9.44%
Heart transplant 0.00% 0.50% 0.50% 1.00% 0.50% 1.99% 0.50% 2.97%
BAT-specific serious adverse events
 Infections 2.61%        
 Other (h) 0.87%        
  1. Notes and sources: (a) HF medication usage based on BeAT-HF clinical trial data, values are expressed as the expected number of medications for patients within the given time frame; (b) Assumes medication use in BAT + GDT is proportional over time, while GDT alone usage increases an additional rate of 4% per year; (c) ACE = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB = angiotensin receptor blockers; (d) ARNI use in GDT alone is assumed to increase at a faster rate than that of other medication usage in GDT alone; (e) MRA = mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; (f) estimates based on NTproBNP levels (see text); (g) Assumes that left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantations do not increase in BAT cohort, but probability of LVAD in GDT cohort increases nearly linearly (see text); (h) “Other” includes the following BAT-specific serious adverse events, each of which occurred at a rate of 0.87%: Prolonged Intubation (requiring overnight stay); Antibiotic Allergic Reaction (BAT implanted at a later date); HF Exacerbation; Prolonged Stay due to Dizziness; Acute Respiratory Failure (consequence of anesthesia); Pneumonia Resulting in Intubation; Ischemic Stroke; Cranial Nerve Stimulation for Localized Neck Pain (341 days post implant)