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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients stratified by age

From: Incidence and predictors of hospitalization in patients with atrial fibrillation: results from the Chinese atrial fibrillation registry study

Characteristics Total (N = 20,172) < 65
(N = 9977)
65–74
(N = 5875)
≥ 75
(N = 4320)
P value
Female, n (%) 7707 (38.2) 2866 (28.7) 2740 (46.6) 2101 (48.6) < 0.01
High school or above, n (%) 6137 (34.1) 3266 (36.4) 1643 (31.2) 1228 (33.0) < 0.01
Health insurance, n (%)      
 No insurance reimbursement 917 (4.7) 550 (5.8) 256 (4.5) 111 (2.6) < 0.01
 Partial insurance reimbursement 16,670 (85.6) 8505 (89.1) 4875 (85.9) 3290 (77.3) < 0.01
 Full insurance reimbursement 1886 (9.7) 487 (5.1) 546 (9.6) 853 (20.1) < 0.01
BMI, n (%)      
 Normal (< 24 kg/m2) 6310 (33.2) 2646 (27.7) 1918 (34.5) 1746 (44.7) < 0.01
 Overweight (24–28 kg/m2) 8668 (45.6) 4559 (47.7) 2509 (45.1) 1600 (41.0) < 0.01
 Obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) 4036 (21.2) 2344 (24.6) 1131 (20.4) 561 (14.4) < 0.01
Smoking, n (%) 3170 (15.7) 2317 (23.2) 601 (10.2) 252 (5.8) < 0.01
Drinking, n (%) 3881 (19.2) 2819 (28.3) 734 (12.5) 328 (7.6) < 0.01
AF type, n (%)      
 Newly diagnosed 1205 (6.0) 473 (4.8) 332 (5.7) 400 (9.3) < 0.01
 Paroxysmal AF 11,692 (58.1) 6038 (60.7) 3465 (59.1) 2189 (50.8) < 0.01
 Persistent AF 7229 (35.9) 3434 (34.5) 2071 (35.3) 1724 (40.0) < 0.01
AF duration ≥ one year, n (%) 12,236 (60.7) 6015 (60.3) 3626 (61.7) 2595 (60.1) 0.14
EHRA score, n (%)      
 I 1655 (9.3) 796 (8.9) 478 (9.2) 381 (10.0) < 0.01
 II 11,520 (64.4) 5952 (66.9) 3265 (63.2) 2303 (60.4) < 0.01
 III 4705 (26.3) 2154 (24.2) 1423 (27.6) 1128 (29.6) < 0.01
Hypertension, n (%) 13,393 (66.4) 5587 (56.0) 4365 (74.3) 3441 (79.7) < 0.01
Heart failure, n (%)      
 NYHA I 3946 (53.8) 1945 (67.4) 1208 (53.9) 793 (36.0) < 0.01
 NYHA II 2431 (33.2) 735 (25.5) 767 (34.2) 929 (42.1) < 0.01
 NYHA III 957 (13.1) 206 (7.1) 267 (11.9) 484 (21.9) < 0.01
Established CAD, n (%) 3020 (15.0) 937 (9.4) 1050 (17.9) 1033 (24.0) < 0.01
Cardiomyopathy, n (%) 365 (1.8) 233 (2.3) 88 (1.5) 44 (1.0) < 0.01
Ischemic stroke/TIA, n (%) 2884 (14.3) 914 (9.2) 982 (16.7) 988 (22.9) < 0.01
Haemorrhagic stroke, n (%) 225 (1.1) 91 (0.9) 60 (1.0) 74 (1.7) < 0.01
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 4702 (23.3) 1909 (19.1) 1539 (26.2) 1254 (29.0) < 0.01
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 9785 (48.5) 5110 (51.2) 2816 (47.9) 1859 (43.0) < 0.01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%) 169 (0.8) 35 (0.4) 54 (0.9) 80 (1.9) < 0.01
Gastrointestinal disorder, n (%) 633 (3.1) 299 (3.0) 189 (3.2) 145 (3.4) 0.48
Hyperthyroidism/Hypothyroidism, n (%) 994 (4.9) 448 (4.5) 323 (5.5) 223 (5.2) 0.01
Renal dysfunction, n (%) 566 (3.5) 85 (1.1) 137 (3.0) 344 (10.2) < 0.01
CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2, n (%) 13,424 (75.4) 3790 (49.8) 5314 (90.5) 4320 (100.0) < 0.01
Antiarrhythmic drugs, n (%) 7330 (36.3) 4454 (44.6) 1969 (33.5) 907 (21.0) < 0.01
Ventricular rate control, n (%) 9575 (47.5) 4096 (41.1) 2951 (50.2) 2528 (58.5) < 0.01
Warfarin, n (%) 9449 (46.8) 4762 (47.7) 2941 (50.1) 1746 (40.4) < 0.01
DOACs, n (%) 3268 (16.2) 1975 (19.8) 867 (14.8) 426 (9.9) < 0.01
Aspirin/ Clopidogrel, n (%) 4894 (24.3) 1879 (18.8) 1478 (25.2) 1537 (35.6) < 0.01
ACEIs/ARBs, n (%) 6828 (33.9) 2690 (27.0) 2265 (38.6) 1873 (43.4) < 0.01
Statin, n (%) 7461 (37.0) 2987 (29.9) 2522 (42.9) 1952 (45.2) < 0.01
History of RFCA, n (%) 8801 (43.6) 5595 (56.1) 2355 (40.1) 851 (19.7) < 0.01
Echocardiogram parameters      
 LAD, mm, (SD) 40.4 ± 6.5 39.8 ± 6.3 40.5 ± 6.4 41.7 ± 7.0 < 0.01
 IVS, mm, (SD) 9.8 ± 1.7 9.7 ± 1.8 9.8 ± 1.7 9.9 ± 1.8 < 0.01
 LVEDD, mm, (SD) 48.3 ± 5.6 48.8 ± 5.5 47.8 ± 5.5 47.8 ± 5.9 < 0.01
 LVEF, %, (SD) 62.9 ± 8.3 62.7 ± 8.2 63.5 ± 8.2 62.6 ± 8.9 < 0.01
  1. BMI, body mass index; AF, atrial fibrillation; CAD, coronary artery disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack; DOAC, direct oral anticoagulants; ACEIs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers; RFCA, radiofrequency catheter ablation; LAD, left atrial diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; IVS, interventricular septum; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension. eGFR (ml/min·1.73m2) = 186 × Scr-1.154 × ge-0.203 .742 (if female) 1.233 (if Chinese). Renal dysfunction was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min·1.73m2. According to the proportion of medical insurance company payment, health insurance was divided into three levels: full, partial, and no insurance reimbursement