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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of participants according to hypertensive status

From: The association between serum alanine aminotransferase and hypertension: A national based cross-sectional analysis among over 21 million Chinese adults

Variables Total Normotensive Hypertensive P*
(n = 21,103,790) (n = 20,216,281) (n = 887,509)
Gender, Female [n(%)] 11,008,565 (52.16) 10,723,110 (53.04) 285,455 (32.16)  < 0.001
Age, y (Mean ± SD)†† 29.55 ± 6.19 29.39 ± 6.10 33.03 ± 7.16  < 0.001
Ethnicity, Han [n (%)] 18,567,773 (87.98) 17,781,209 (87.95) 786,564 (88.63) 0.171
Area, Rural [n (%)] 18,348,932 (86.95) 17,625,871 (87.19) 723,061 (81.47)  < 0.001
Region, South [n (%)] 12,248,880 (58.04) 11,719,810 (95.68) 529,070 (4.32)  < 0.001
Education, Below High School [n (%)] 12,139,927 (57.52) 11,626,869 (57.51) 513,058 (57.81)  < 0.001
Drinking, Yes [n (%)] 3,033,405 (14.39) 2,791,062 (13.82) 242,343 (27.33)  < 0.001
Smoking, Yes [n (%)] 2,816,211 (13.36) 2,614,132 (12.94) 202,079 (22.79)  < 0.001
Salt consumption, Excessive [n (%)] 5,416,550 (25.67) 5,125,161 (25.57) 291,389 (33.21)  < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (Mean ± SD) 22.63 ± 3.32 22.52 ± 3.25 25.04 ± 4.06  < 0.001
 < 18.5 [n (%)] 1,558,090 (7.38) 1,533,888 (7.59) 24,202 (2.73)  
18.5–23.9 [n (%)] 13,382,798 (63.41) 13,029,173 (64.45) 353,625 (39.84)  
24.0–27.9 [n (%)] 4,798,023 (22.74) 4,477,431 (22.15) 320,592 (36.12)  
 ≥ 28 [n (%)] 1,327,226 (6.29) 1,140,466 (5.64) 186,760 (21.04)  
Heart Rate, bp (Mean ± SD) 76.02 ± 7.76 75.85 ± 7.52 79.80 ± 11.32  < 0.001
ALT, U/L (Median, IQR) 20.00,15.70 20.00, 15.00 26.00, 16.80  < 0.001
Blood glucose, mmol/L (Mean ± SD)§ 4.93 ± 1.00 4.92 ± 0.99 5.21 ± 1.42  < 0.001
HBsAg, Positive [n (%)] 1,208,067 (5.73) 1,154,190 (5.71) 53,877 (6.08)  < 0.001
History of Diabetes, Yes [n (%)] 10,047 (0.05) 8,210 (0.04) 1,837 (0.21)  < 0.001
Overall stress, Yes [n (%)] 2,411,365 (11.47) 2,271,218 (11.27) 140,147 (15.85)  < 0.001
  1. SD: standard deviation; BMI: body mass index; IQR: interquartile range; HBsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen
  2. *Age and Sex adjusted P-value was calculated using Logistic Regression Model
  3. Age adjusted P-value was calculated using Logistic Regression Model
  4. ††Sex adjusted P-value was calculated using Logistic Regression Model
  5. §Blood glucose was only measured among women