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Table 2 Relationship of ambulatory blood pressure parameters to systolic blood pressure dipping status

From: The relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness, inflammation, blood pressure dipping and cardiovascular outcomes

Characteristic Normal dippers Non dippers Reverse dippers p value
24 h ABPM averages     
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 129.6 ± 14.1 133.9 ± 15.6 135.4 ± 15.9 0.002ab
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 77.0 ± 9.7 76.1 ± 10.6 74.3 ± 11.7 0.18
Mean arterial blood pressure, mmHg 95.1 ± 9.8 96.3 ± 10.5 95.8 ± 11.8 0.49
Pulse pressure, mmHg 52.6 ± 11.8 57.8 ± 13.3 61.2 ± 10.9 < 0.0001ab
Day-time averages     
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 135.4 ± 14.9 135.9 ± 15.7 134.0 ± 15.9 0.71
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 81.3 ± 10.3 77.9 ± 10.6 74.2 ± 11.8 < 0.0001ab
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 99.9 ± 10.4 98.1 ± 10.5 95.3 ± 12.0 0.008b
Pulse pressure, mmHg 54.1 ± 12.60 57.9 ± 13.5 59.8 ± 10.7 0.0009ab
Night-time averages     
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 114.2 ± 12.0 128.1 ± 15.2 139.9 ± 16.3 < 0.0001abc
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 65.6 ± 8.6 70.3 ± 9.7 74.7 ± 11.4 < 0.0001abc
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 82.7 ± 8.8 90.9 ± 10.3 97.6 ± 11.6 < 0.0001abc
Pulse pressure, mmHg 48.7 ± 10.7 57.8 ± 12.8 65.2 ± 12.7 < 0.0001abc
Systolic blood pressure dip, % 14.2 [12.2–18.4] 6.0 [3.2 to 8.3] − 3.8 [− 6.6 to − .2] < 0.0001abc
AASI 0.39 ± 0.16 0.48 ± 0.17 0.56 ± 0.16 < 0.0001abc
  1. ABPM Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; AASI, Ambulatory arterial stiffness index
  2. p values refer to the results of overall comparison between the three groups: 1. normal dippers, 2. non-dippers and 3. reverse dippers. Significant difference on post hoc tests: a. Normal vs. non-dippers, b. Normal vs. reverse-dippers, c. Non vs. reverse-dippers