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Table 1 Relationship between baseline demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and blood marker with blood pressure dipping status

From: The relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness, inflammation, blood pressure dipping and cardiovascular outcomes

Characteristic Normal-dippers Non-dippers Reverse-dippers p value
Number (% 237 (46.7%) 214 (42.1%) 57 (11.2%)  
Age, years 56.3 ± 13.9 60.5 ± 13.3 62.6 ± 15.4 0.0006ab
Male sex (%) 120 (50.6%) 99 (46.3%) 29 (50.9%) 0.61
Height, cm 168.7 ± 10.9 168.5 ± 9.7 168.6 ± 11.7 0.98
Weight, kg 81.9 ± 18.0 82.4 ± 19.6 86.6 ± 24.0 0.27
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.8 ± 5.5 29.0 ± 6.1 30.3 ± 6.5 0.26
Coronary artery disease 43 (18.1%) 44 (20.6%) 15 (26.3%) 0.37
Heart failure 6 (2.5%) 9 (4.2%) 8 (14.0%) 0.0008
Peripheral vascular disease 9 (3.8%) 5 (2.3%) 11 (19.3%) < 0.0001
Diabetes mellitus 24 (10.1%) 43 (20.1%) 19 (33.3%) < 0.0001
Previous stroke /TIA 21 (8.8%) 11 (5.1%) 8 (14.0%) 0.06
Known hypertension 155 (65.4%) 143 (66.8%) 44 (77.2%) 0.23
Current/ex-smokers 98 (41.4%) 96 (44.9%) 29 (50.9%) 0.40
Ejection fraction, % 59.8 ± 8.2 59.2 ± 9.6 57.5 ± 9.0 0.27
Haemoglobin g/l 141.3 ± 14.9 138.4 ± 15.0 136.5 ± 14.9 0.051
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio 2.1 [1.6–2.9] 2.3 [0.7–3.4] 2.6 [2.0–3.9] < 0.0001ab
Platelet/lymphocyte ratio 145.3 ± 75.8 154.7 ± 70.5 167.2 ± 92.2 0.11
Monocyte/lymphocyte ratio 0.32 ± 0.16 0.33 ± 0.17 0.37 ± 0.18 0.13
Creatinine clearance 76.8 ± 26.7 72.1 ± 28.1 70.5 ± 37.3 0.016b
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 4.9 ± 1.1 4.7 ± 1.2 4.6 ± 1.0 0.18
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.56 ± 0.5 1.49 ± 0.5 1.38 ± 0.4 0.037b
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.52 ± 0.9 1.57 ± 0.9 1.73 ± 1.0 0.17
HBA1c, mmol/mol 41.2 ± 12.1 43.9 ± 12.6 49.39 ± 21.3 0.0008bc
MACE events 15 (6.3%) 15 (7.0%) 9 (15.8%) 0.049
  1. TIA, transient ischaemic attack; HBA1c Glycosylated haemoglobin; HDL, high density lipoprotein
  2. p values refer to the results of overall comparison between the three groups: 1. Normal dippers, 2. Non-dippers and 3. Reverse-dippers. Significant difference on post hoc tests a. normal vs. non dippers, b. normal vs. reverse dippers, c. non vs. reverse dippers