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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the enrolled patients

From: Prognostic value of the modified model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score including albumin in acute heart failure

Variables All (n = 466) Deaths (n = 196) Survivors (n = 270) P value
Age (years) 61.8 (25.0) 65.0 (15.5) 59.5 (29.9) 0.019
Male, % 314 (67.4%) 111 (56.6%) 203 (75.2%)  < 0.001
Diabetes,% 118 (25.3%) 51 (26.0%) 67 (24.8%) 0.768
Hypertension, % 244 (52.4%) 97 (49.5%) 147 (54.4%) 0.290
Ischemic heart failure, % 125 (26.8%) 53 (27.0%) 72 (26.7%) 0.928
NYHA     0.041
II 57 (21.1%) 24 (12.2%) 81 (17.4%)  
III 138 (51.1%) 108 (55.1%) 246 (52.8%)  
IV 75 (27.8%) 64 (32.7%) 139 (29.8%)  
Heart rate, beats/min 85.5 (20.9) 85.1 (21.4) 85.7 (20.6) 0.731
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 (22.6) 124 (19.9) 129 (24.2) 0.020
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.5 (15.2) 76.0 (12.2) 80.4 (16.8) 0.002
Potassium (mmol/L) 3.99 (0.51) 3.99 (0.51) 3.99 (0.50) 0.912
Sodium (mmol/L) 140 (3.9) 139 (4.2) 140 (3.7) 0.086
Albumin (g/L) 3.66 (0.48) 3.60 (0.49) 3.71 (0.47) 0.025
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.16 (0.65) 1.21 (0.61) 1.12 (0.68) 0.131
Uric acid (mg/dL) 8.13 (2.83) 8.41(3.06) 7.93 (2.64) 0.070
ALT (U/L) 27(17–46) 26(15–50) 27(18–44) 0.550
AST (U/L) 28(22–42) 28(22–48) 28(22–39) 0.162
INR 1.20 (0.28) 1.22 (0.26) 1.18 (0.30) 0.142
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.23 (1.03) 1.28 (1.00) 1.19 (1.04) 0.348
proBNP (ng/L) 2254 (1269–5835) 2873 (1572–7373) 1779 (1087–4601)  < 0.001
CRP (mg/L) 2.9 (1.2 –6.7) 3.1 (1.2 –7.5) 2.7 (1.0 –6.5) 0.125
Anemia, % 133 (28.5) 64 (32.5%) 69 (25.6%) 0.073
LVEF (%) 41.6 (14.4) 39.8 (13.8) 44.0 (14.9)  < 0.001
Pulmonary hypertension, % 117 (25.1%) 65 (33.2%) 52 (19.3%) 0.001
Tricuspid regurgitation, %     0.004
No 43 (9.2%) 17 (8.7%) 26 (9.6%)  
Mild 197 (42.3%) 70 (35.7%) 127 (47.0%)  
Moderate 139 (29.8%) 57 (29.1%) 82 (30.4%)  
Severe 87 (18.7%) 52 (26.5%) 35 (13.0%)  
RVDd (mm) 39.8 (8.21) 40.3 (8.94) 39.4 (7.63)  
Body mass index (kg/M2) 24.2 (5.7) 23.6 (5.7) 24.6 (5.8) 0.068
Antisterone, % 415 (89.1%) 177 (90.3%) 238 (88.1%) 0.451
ACEI/ARB, % 365 (78.3%) 151 (77.0%) 214 (79.3%) 0.566
Beta-blocker, % 373 (80.0%) 151 (77.0%) 222 (82.2%) 0.167
Aspirin, % 198 (42.5%) 85 (43.4%) 113 (41.9%) 0.744
MELD 8.5 (7.2–10.9) 8.9 (7.4–11.9) 8.3 (7.1–10.2) 0.004
MELD_XI 11.3 (9.4–13.8) 11.8 (9.4–15.2) 11.0 (9.4–13.2) 0.008
MELD_sodium 8.6 (6.5–12.4) 9.4 (6.9–14.0) 8.3 (6.3–11.0) 0.004
MELD_albumin 12.3 (9.6–15.2) 13.1 (10.6–16.4) 11.6 (9.0–14.6)  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) or median (interquartile range), or n (%). proBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NYHA New York Heart Association functional, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransaminase, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, RVDd right ventricular diastolic diameter, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker