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Table 1 Prevalence of hypertension and related CVD risk factors in selected Eastern Sub-Saharan Countries

From: Reasons for poor blood pressure control in Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa: looking into 4P’s (primary care, professional, patient, and public health policy) for improving blood pressure control: a scoping review

S.No Country Raised blood pressure, adults aged 18 + (%) Proportion patients not taking antihypertensive drugs Percentage of patients achieved BP control Current tobacco smoking, adults aged 15 + (%) Prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in 18 + (%) Physical inactivity, adults aged 18 + (%) Harmful (heavy) alcohol consumption Mean population salt intake, adults aged 20 + (g/day) Parentage consuming fruits and vegetables < 5 servings/day
1 Ethiopia 16 71.6  < 30 4.0 4 14 12.4 6 97.6
2 Kenya 23.8 50.9   10 6 14 12.7 4.3 94.0
3 Malawi 22 94.9 1.5 12 5 14 7.7 4 97.5
4 Mozambique 23 50 Low 16 6 5 2 6 95.6
5 Rwanda 20 78 12.8 5 13.3 9 4 99.3
6 Seychelles 24 25 20.0 21 15 19 12 11 37.5%
7 Tanzania 25.9 77.1 3.1 14.1 7 7.5 9 7 97.2
8 Uganda 24.3 76.1 9.4 11 4 4.3 9 5 87.5
9 Zambia 20 80 6.7 15.8 7 20 5 6 90.4
10 Zimbabwe 20 11.8 12 25 5 8
S.No Country Availability essential NCD medicines Raised blood glucose, adults aged 18 + (%) Prevalence total cholesterol ≥ 5 mmol/L Percentage with at least one risk factor Proportion of 40–69 old with ≥ 30% CVD risk Proportion of primary healthcare centres reported as offering CVD risk stratification Having CVD guidelines that are utilized in at least 50% of health facilities Availability essential technologies References
1 Ethiopia 54.7 6 5.6 98.4 4.7 < 25% 0 50 [20,21,22,23]
2 Kenya 90 3.1 10.1 97 7.6 < 25% 0 66.7 [23, 24, 26,27,28]
3 Malawi 50 5.6 8.7 99 16.5 0 100 33.3 [23,24,25]
4 Mozambique 70 2.9 99.6 16.4 < 25% 0 66.7 [23, 24, 29]
5 Rwanda 100 3.1 2.6 99.6 16.35 0 100 83.3 [23, 24, 30]
6 Seychelles 100 10 36.7 < 25% 100 83.3 [23, 31]
7 Tanzania 60 9.1 4.4 82.6 16.6 < 25% 0 66.7 [23, 24, 32]
8 Uganda 50 3.3 6.7 < 25% 100 66.7 [23, 24, 33, 34]
9 Zambia 60 6.0 7.4 94.7 4.0 < 25% 100 66.7 [23, 24, 35, 36]
10 Zimbabwe 40 11.5 20.2 0 100 50 [23, 24, 37, 38]
  1. Interventions to reduce body weight at the individual level often have little efficacy, except bariatric surgery. Therefore, weight control interventions should focus on the societal causes of the obesogenic environment and include interventions in all sectors (e.g. education, agriculture, finance, transports, nutrition, food industry, etc.) to enable people to choose healthier diets, including adequate food labeling, tax/subsidies on healthy/unhealthy foods; ban on advertising of unhealthy foods, healthy food in canteens in schools/workplaces. Multisectoral interventions should also address the structural environment to help people engage in more physical activity in their daily lives (e.g. bus/cycling lanes, safe sidewalks, promotion of public transports, disincentives to use private cars, etc.)
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, NCD non-communicable disease, BP blood pressure, g/day gram per day