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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with and without left ventricular pressure gradient

From: Left intraventricular pressure gradient in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention

  With IVPG of ≥ 30 mmHg
(n = 30)
Without IVPG of ≥ 30 mmHg
(n = 30)
P-value
Age (years) 56 ± 13 54 ± 18 0.55
Male 20 (67%) 22 (73%) 0.78
NYHA functional class I/II/III 14/13/3 17/13/0 0.19
NSVT 26 (87%) 22 (73%) 0.33
Unexplained syncope 11 (37%) 14 (47%) 0.60
Family history of sudden death 10 (33%) 9 (30%) 1.00
Abnormal BP response during exercise 6 (20%) 7 (23%) 1.00
Maximum LV wall thickness ≥ 30 mm 4 (13%) 3 (10%) 1.00
Number of major conventional risk factors    0.21
1 12 (40%) 10 (33%)  
2 9 (30%) 16 (53%)  
3 8 (27%) 4 (13%)  
4 1 (3%) 0  
HCM risk-SCD score
5-year risk (%) 5.3 (3.1–8.1) 4.0 (3.0–5.9) 0.14
Category*    0.38
High risk 12 (40%) 6 (20%)  
Intermediate risk 7 (23%) 9 (30%)  
Low risk 11 (37%) 15 (50%)  
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (n = 23) (n = 17)  
LGE-positive 19 (83%) 15 (88%) 1.00
LV mass (g) 112 ± 44 107 ± 44 0.72
Electrophysiological study (n = 15) (n = 23)  
Inducible VT or VF 8 (53%) 6 (26%) 0.49
Portion of LV obstruction
Outflow tract 18 (60%)   
Mid-ventricle 12 (40%)   
Echocardiographic parameters
Left atrial dimension (mm) 37 ± 6 41 ± 9 0.10
LV end-diastolic dimension (mm) 43 ± 7 46 ± 7 0.19
LV end-systolic dimension (mm) 27 ± 7 29 ± 6 0.28
LV ejection fraction (%) 61 ± 11 62 ± 10 0.84
Maximum LV wall thickness (mm) 21 ± 7 19 ± 7 0.20
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
Subcutaneous type 0 1 (3%)  
Transvenous type 30 (100%) 29 (97%)  
 Pacing mode    
  AAI 0 1 (3%)  
  VVI 3 (10%) 10 (35%)  
  DDI 3 (10%) 1 (3%)  
  DDD 24 (80%) 17 (59%)  
 RV pacing > 95% 17 (57%) 2 (7%)  < 0.01
Tachycardia detection setting/therapy setting
 VF zone 30/30 30/30  
 Fast VT zone 7/7 11/11  
 VT zone 25/13 24/5  
Medications
Beta-blockers 27 (90%) 26 (87%) 1.00
Calcium channel blockers 5 (17%) 4 (13%) 1.00
ACE inhibitors/ARBs 7 (23%) 19 (63%)  < 0.01
Class I antiarrhythmic drugs 11 (37%) 1 (3%)  < 0.01
Amiodarone 8 (27%) 8 (27%) 1.00
  1. Values are presented as the numbers of patients (%), means ± SD, or median (interquartile range)
  2. ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; HCM-Risk SCD, a risk prediction model for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; IVPG, intraventricular pressure gradient; LGE, gadolinium enhancement; LV, left ventricular; NSVT, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; NYHA, New York Heart Association; RV, right ventricular; VT, ventricular tachycardia; VF, ventricular fibrillation
  3. *High risk: 5-year risk ≥ 6%, Intermediate risk: 5-year risk ≥ 4% and < 6%, Low risk: 5-year risk < 4%