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Table 3 Comparisons of 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived parameters between 3 groups of low-, moderate-, and high-risk CHA2DS2-VASc scores

From: Assessment of the ability of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system to grade left atrial function by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography

Variable Group Unadjusted
P value
Comparison Unadjusted post hoc Adjusted post hocb
Ba (95% CI) P value Ba (95% CI) P value
Low-Risk Score Group
(N = 34)
Moderate-Risk Score Group
(N = 83)
High-Risk Score Group
(N = 223)
LASr (%) 31.0 ± 5.0 29.8 ± 6.1 27.8 ± 6.9 0.004 Low-risk versus moderate-risk scores 1.1 (− 3.7 to 1.5) 0.389 1.4 (− 4.0 to 1.3) 0.313
Low-risk versus high-risk scores 3.2 (− 5.5 to − 0.8) 0.008 3.7 (− 6.1 to − 1.2) 0.004
Moderate-risk versus high-risk scores 2.1 (− 3.7 to − 0.5) 0.012 2.3 (− 4.0 to − 0.6) 0.007
pLASRr (1/s) 2.9 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 0.009 Low-risk versus moderate-risk scores 0.0 (− 0.3 to 0.3) 0.881 0.0 (− 0.3 to 0.2) 0.775
Low-risk versus high-risk scores 0.3 (− 0.5 to 0.0) 0.044 0.4 (− .06 to − 0.1) 0.005
Moderate-risk versus high-risk scores 0.2 (− 0.4 to − 0.1) 0.007 0.3 (− 0.5 to − 0.1) < 0.001
LAScd (%) 12.9 (9.4–15.1) 11.5 (9.1–13.8) 9.7 (7.1–12.5)  < 0.001 Low-risk versus moderate-risk scores 0.9 (− 2.5 to 0.8) 0.297 1.1 (− 2.7 to 0.5) 0.191
Low-risk versus high-risk scores 2.6 (− 4.1 to − 1.1) 0.001 2.7 (− 4.2 to − 1.1) 0.001
Moderate-risk versus high-risk scores 1.7 (− 2.8 to − 0.7) 0.001 1.6 (− 2.6 to − 0.6) 0.003
pLASRcd (1/s) 2.8 (2.4–3.6) 2.6 (2.2–3.0) 2.1 (1.6–2.7)  < 0.001 Low-risk versus moderate-risk scores 0.4 (− 0.7 to − 0.1) 0.010 0.4 (− 0.8 to − 0.1) 0.005
Low-risk versus high-risk scores 0.8 (− 1.1 to − 0.5) < 0.001 0.8 (− 1.1 to − 0.5) < 0.001
Moderate-risk versus high-risk scores 0.4 (− 0.6 to − 0.2) < 0.001 0.4 (− 0.6 to − 0.2) < 0.001
LASct (%) 18.4 ± 3.6 18.1 ± 4.2 17.8 ± 4.9 0.752 Low-risk versus moderate-risk scores 0.3 (− 2.1 to 1.6) 0.780 0.3 (− 2.1 to 1.5) 0.770
Low-risk versus high-risk scores 0.6 (− 2.2 to 1.1) 0.513 1.0 (− 2.7 to 0.7) 0.256
Moderate-risk versus high-risk scores 0.4 (− 1.5 to 0.8) 0.543 0.7 (− 1.9 to 0.4) 0.225
pLASRct (1/s) 4.3 ± 0.9 4.2 ± 1.1 4.1 ± 1.3 0.499 Low-risk versus moderate-risk scores 0.1 (− 0.6 to 0.40) 0.794 0.1 (− 0.6 to 0.4) 0.673
Low-risk versus high-risk scores 0.2 (− 0.6 to 0.2) 0.359 0.4 (− 0.8 to 0.1) 0.087
Moderate-risk versus high-risk scores 0.2 (− 0.5 to 0.2) 0.322 0.3 (− 0.6 to 0.0) 0.063
  1. aAbsolute value of B is presented
  2. bAdjusted according to systolic blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin levels, low-density lipoprotein levels, cigarette smoking, left circumflex artery stenosis, single-vessel disease, obesity, and nitrate use
  3. CI, confidence interval; LAScd, left atrial longitudinal strain during the conduit phase; LASct, Left atrial longitudinal strain during the contraction phase; LASr, Left atrial longitudinal strain during the reservoir phase; pLASRcd, peak left atrial longitudinal strain rate during the conduit phase; pLASRct, Peak left atrial longitudinal strain rate during the contraction phase; pLASRr, peak left atrial longitudinal strain rate during the reservoir phase