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Table 2 Standard echocardiography data of the 3 groups of low-, moderate-, and high-risk CHA2DS2-VASc scores

From: Assessment of the ability of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system to grade left atrial function by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography

Variable Group P value
Low-Risk Score
(N = 34)
Moderate-Risk Score
(N = 83)
High-Risk Score
(N = 223)
LVEDV index (mL/m2) 49 ± 8 48 ± 11 53 ± 16 0.014
LVESV index (mL/m2) 26 (21–29) 24 (21–29) 28 (21–36)b 0.007
LVEF (%) 48 ± 6 47 ± 7 44 ± 9a,b  < 0.001
LV mass index (g/m2) 77.5 ± 15.2 75.7 ± 17.4 85.7 ± 21.9a,b  < 0.001
E (cm/s) 60 ± 13 61 ± 16 63 ± 17 0.327
A (cm/s) 58 ± 14 67 ± 16c 80 ± 20a,b  < 0.001
E/A ratio 1.1 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3a,b  < 0.001
DT (ms) 248 ± 33 253 ± 46 241 ± 42 0.088
S (cm/s) 51 ± 8 53 ± 10 53 ± 11 0.435
D (cm/s) 39 ± 8 37 ± 8 35 ± 8a 0.034
S/D ratio 1.3 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.3c 1.5 ± 0.3a  < 0.001
Mean s′ (cm/s) 7.8 ± 1.5 7.5 ± 1.4 6.9 ± 1.6a,b  < 0.001
Mean e′ (cm/s) 8.2 ± 2.1 7.6 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.7a,b  < 0.001
Mean a′ (cm/s) 9.1 ± 1.2 9.4 ± 1.4 9.1 ± 1.9 0.608
e′/a′ ratio 0.9 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2a,b  < 0.001
E/e′ ratio 7.4 (6.3–8.5) 7.9 (6.5–9.7) 9.8 (7.7–12.1)a,b  < 0.001
Maximal LA volume index (mL/m2) 28 ± 8 30 ± 8 32 ± 8a,b 0.003
Minimal LA volume (mL/m2) 10 (8–12) 11 (8–14) 12 (9–15)a 0.001
Pre-A LA volume (mL/m2) 20 ± 6 22 ± 6 24 ± 7a,b 0.001
LA total emptying fraction (%) 64 ± 6 62 ± 7 60 ± 9a 0.027
Expansion index (%) 188 ± 57 169 ± 50 163 ± 54a 0.036
LA passive emptying fraction (%) 28 ± 7 26 ± 7 25 ± 8 0.060
Passive emptying percentage of total emptying (%) 44 ± 9 42 ± 10 41 ± 11 0.264
LA active emptying fraction (%) 50 ± 8 50 ± 7 47 ± 9 0.164
Booster active emptying percentage of total emptying (%) 56 ± 9 58 ± 10 59 ± 11 0.264
  1. aLow-risk score group versus high-risk score group
  2. bModerate-risk score group versus high-risk score group
  3. cLow-risk score group versus moderate-risk score group
  4. DT, deceleration time; LA, left atrial; LVEDVi, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESVi, left ventricular end-systolic volume index