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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory data of the 3 groups of low-, moderate-, and high-risk CHA2DS2-VASc scores

From: Assessment of the ability of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system to grade left atrial function by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography

Variable Group P value
Low-Risk Score
(N = 34)
Moderate-Risk Score
(N = 83)
High-Risk Score
(N = 223)
Clinical data     
Age (y) 55 ± 6 59 ± 7c 64 ± 9a,b < 0.001
Age < 65 34 (100) 68 (82) 113 (51) < 0.001
65 ≤ Age < 75 0(0) 15 (18) 83 (37)  
Age ≥ 75 0 (0) 0(0) 27 (12)  
Female sex (%) 4 (12) 17 (21) 61 (27) 0.095
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.9 ± 4.5 28.3 ± 4.6 27.4 ± 4.0 0.289
Body surface area (m2) 1.9 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.2a,b 0.002
Obesity (%) 8 (24) 30 (36) 50 (22) 0.049
Hypertension (%) 0 (0) 35 (42) 167 (75) < 0.001
Diabetes (%) 0 (0) 22 (27) 149 (67) < 0.001
Stroke (%) 0 (0) 0(0) 27 (12) < 0.001
Vascular disease (peripheral vascular disease, prior myocardial infarction, aortic plaque) (%) 0 (0) 4 (5) 26 (12) 0.028
History of myocardial infarction (%) 0 (0) 4 (5) 26 (12) 0.028
Cigarette smoking (%) 16 (47) 34 (41) 72 (32) 0.133
History of aspirin use (%) 33 (97) 76 (92) 208 (93) 0.561
History of ACEI/ARB use (%) 12 (35) 38 (46) 146 (66)  < 0.001
History of beta-blocker use (%) 24 (71) 55 (66) 170 (76) 0.202
History of calcium-channel blocker use (%) 1 (2.9) 8 (10) 39 (18) 0.031
History of nitrate use (%) 28 (82) 55 (66) 145 (65) 0.132
History of statin use (%) 31 (91) 72 (87) 181 (81) 0.226
History of diuretic use (%) 0 (0) 5 (6) 42 (19) 0.001
History of oral antidiabetic use (%) 0 (0) 16 (19) 110 (49)  < 0.001
History of insulin use (%) 0 (0) 5 (6) 49 (22)  < 0.001
Left anterior descending artery (%) 34 (100) 83 (100) 223 (100)  > 0.999
Left circumflex artery (%) 26 (77) 70 (84) 202 (91) 0.038
Right coronary artery (%) 30 (88) 74 (89) 203 (91) 0.808
Single-vessel disease (%) 3 (9) 4 (5) 4 (2) 0.040
Double-vessel disease (%) 6 (18) 14 (17) 33 (15) 0.853
Triple-vessel disease (%) 25 (74) 65 (78) 186 (83) 0.293
Heart rate (bpm) 64 ± 10 67 ± 11 70 ± 12a 0.004
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 124 ± 12 125 ± 15 129 ± 18 0.083
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 78 ± 8 78 ± 10 76 ± 11 0.356
Laboratory data     
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dL) 97 ± 17 113 ± 41c 123 ± 42a 0.001
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 0.620
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.8 ± 1.1 14.2 ± 1.7 13.9 ± 1.6a 0.009
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 153 (103–200) 145 (117–192) 142 (108–195) 0.790
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 163 ± 50 149 ± 41 141 ± 39a 0.009
High-density lipoprotein (mg/dL) 37 (30–41) 35 (30–39) 36 (31–41) 0.641
Low-density lipoprotein (mg/dL) 95 (71–126) 81 (66–109) 77 (62–99)a 0.012
  1. ACEI/ARB, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II-receptor blocker
  2. aLow-risk score group versus high-risk score group
  3. bModerate-risk score group versus high-risk score group
  4. cLow-risk score group versus moderate-risk score group