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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Natural history observations in moderate aortic stenosis

  All patients
N = 729
NYHA I
N = 306
NYHA II
N = 309
NYHA III or IV
N = 114
p
Age (yrs) 76 (67, 84) 74 (66, 83) 77 (68, 85) 77 (69, 84) 0.107
Women 292 (40.1) 139 (45.4) 116 (37.5) 37 (32.5) 0.027
Caucasian 679 (93.1) 287 (93.8) 289 (93.5) 103 (90.4) 0.435
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.7 (24.5, 32.2) 28.0 (24.8, 32.3) 27.9 (24.5, 32.2) 26.8 (23.7, 31.9) 0.290
Hypertension 585 (80.2) 236 (77.1) 251 (81.2) 98 (86.0) 0.110
Diabetes 236 (32.4) 81 (26.5) 112 (36.2) 43 (37.7) 0.014
Dyslipidemia 520 (71.3) 201 (65.7) 240 (77.7) 79 (69.3) 0.004
Current smoking 68 (9.3) 28 (9.2) 29 (9.4) 11 (9.6) 0.987
Coronary artery disease 365 (50.1) 101 (33.0) 196 (63.4) 68 (59.6) < 0.001
Prior myocardial infarction 197 (27.0) 32 (10.5) 114 (36.9) 51 (44.7) < 0.001
Prior PCI 216 (29.6) 61 (19.9) 118 (38.2) 37 (32.5) < 0.001
Prior CABG 138 (18.9) 30 (9.8) 79 (25.6) 29 (25.4) < 0.001
Atrial fibrillation or flutter 286 (39.2) 91 (29.7) 134 (43.4) 61 (53.5) < 0.001
Stroke or TIA 128 (17.6) 48 (15.7) 52 (16.8) 28 (24.6) 0.095
Chronic lung disease 146 (20.0) 40 (13.1) 74 (23.9) 32 (28.1) < 0.001
 O2-dependent 31 (4.3) 8 (2.6) 17 (5.5) 6 (5.3) 0.163
Peripheral artery disease 121 (16.6) 37 (12.1) 63 (20.4) 21 (18.4) 0.018
CKD stage ≥ III 207 (28.6) 45 (14.8) 109 (35.5) 53 (46.9) < 0.001
 Dialysis 28 (3.8) 4 (1.3) 13(4.2) 11 (9.6) 0.001
Anemia 350 (48.0) 120 (39.2) 152 (49.2) 78 (68.4) < 0.001
Permanent pacemaker 101 (13.9) 18 (5.9) 60 (19.4) 23 (20.2) < 0.001
Implanted defibrillator 70 (9.6) 11 (3.6) 32 (10.4) 27 (23.7) < 0.001
Severe liver cirrhosis 2 (0.3) 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.9) 0.288
Severe dementia 4 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 3 (2.6) 0.013
Life-threatening malignancy 18 (2.5) 9 (2.9) 7 (2.3) 2 (1.8) 0.809
Excessive frailty 25 (3.4) 4 (1.3) 13 (4.2) 8 (7.0) 0.006
Medical therapy      
 Anti-platelet 527 (72.3) 203 (66.3) 233 (75.4) 91 (79.8) 0.006
 Warfarin or NOAC 203 (27.8) 61 (19.9) 97 (31.4) 45 (39.5) < 0.001
 ACE-i or ARB 404 (55.4) 141 (46.1) 193 (62.5) 70 (61.4) < 0.001
 Beta-blocker 511 (70.1) 172 (56.2) 239 (77.3) 100 (87.7) < 0.001
 Nitrates 83 (11.4) 19 (6.2) 38 (12.3) 26 (22.8) < 0.001
 Diuretic 379 (52.0) 118 (38.6) 176 (57.0) 85 (74.6) < 0.001
 Aldosterone antagonist 54 (7.4) 11 (3.6) 22 (7.1) 21 (18.4) < 0.001
  1. Data are reported as median (IQR) or no. (%). ACE-i, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor antagonist; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CKD, chronic kidney disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; NOAC, novel oral anticoagulant; NYHA, New York Heart Association; TIA, transient ischemic attack