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Table 4 Attenuation of the male-to-female hazard ratio by different groups of variables in proportional hazard models

From: Prevalence, correlates, and mortality impacts of ventricular arrhythmia among older men and women: a population-based cohort study in Moscow

Sex Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
2.255*** (1.725–2.947) 1.923*** (1.457–2.538) 2.194*** (1.649–2.919) 2.054*** (1.564–2.698) 1.977*** (1.502–2.603) 1.549*** (1.141–2.105)
(A) CVD
Smoking   2.431*** (1.762–3.355)     2.405*** (1.727–3.349)
Obesity    1.041 (0.785–1.361)    1.172 (0.878–1.565)
Grade II hypertension    1.264 (0.959–1.667)    1.237 (0.932–1.642)
Cholesterol    0.931 (0.704–1.230)    0.934 (0.705 – 1.236)
TG    1.108 (0.671–1.828)    1.192 (0.721 – 1.969)
Reported MI     1.470* (1.062–2.034)   1.375 (0.988–1.912)
Reported stroke     1.747** (1.236–2.470)   1.823** (1.287–2.581)
ST depression     1.506* (1.071–2.117)   1.473* (1.040–2.086)
VPC ≥ 10/h      1.381* (1.034–1.844) 1.333 (0.992–1.791)
Polymorphic VPC     1.256 (0.957–1.650) 1.179 (0.894–1.554)
VPC runs      2.196*** (1.518–3.180) 2.228*** (1.523–3.259)
N 1732 1732 1726 1727 1729 1720
Reduction of M/F HR compared to Model 1, %  - 14.7 2.7 8.9 12.3 31.3
Sex Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
2.193*** (1.788–2.689) 1.932*** (1.564–2.386) 2.185*** (1.759–2.715) 2.084*** (1.693–2.565) 1.994*** (1.618–2.458) 1.704*** (1.352–2.148)
(B) All causes
Smoking   2.058**** (1.6002.647)     2.059**** (1.5932.662)
Obesity    1.001 (0.8051.245)    1.071 (0.8571.339)
Grade II hypertension    1.136 (0.9131.412)    1.108 (0.8871.385)
Total cholesterol    1.000 (0.8091.236)    0.986 (0.796 – 1.221)
Triglycerides    0.897 (0.5951.354)    0.944 (0.625 – 1.426)
Reported MI     1.208 (0.9201.586)   1.132 (0.8591.492)
Reported stroke     1.549** (1.1622.065)   1.565** (1.1722.092)
ST depression     1.461** (1.1101.922)   1.427* (1.0791.885)
VPC ≥ 10/h      1.131 (0.894–1.431) 1.100 (0.866–1.397)
Polymorphic VPC     1.283* (1.040–1.582) 1.225 (0.991–1.515)
VPC runs      1.904*** (1.400–2.592) 1.947*** (1.422–2.666)
N 1732 1732 1726 1727 1729 1720
Reduction of M/F HR compared to Model 1, % - 11.9 0.4 5.0 9.1 22.2
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age and education
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for age, education, and smoking
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for age, education, obesity, grade II hypertension, total cholesterol, and triglycerides
  5. Model 4: Adjusted for age, education, reported MI and stroke, and ST depression
  6. Model 5: Adjusted for age, education, VPC ≥ 10/h, polymorphic VPC, and VPC runs
  7. Model 6: Adjusted for age, education, smoking, obesity, grade II hypertension, total cholesterol, triglycerides, reported MI and stroke, ST depression, VPCs ≥ 10/h, polymorphic VPC, and VPC runs