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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population stratified by presence of HTGW components

From: Association of “hypertriglyceridemic waist” with increased 5-year risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in a multi-ethnic population: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Non-HTGW (Healthy) (n = 312) Elevated WC (n = 254) Elevated TG (n = 91) HTGW (n = 156) Significance (p value)
Age 46.9 ± 8.8 46.9 ± 8.5 46.9 ± 9.1 45.5 ± 8.8 0.36
Sex
 Male 138 (44.2%) 137 (53.9%) 33 (36.3%) 84 (53.8%) 0.006
Ethnicity < 0.001
 Aboriginal 37 (11.9%) 89 (35.0%) 14 (15.4%) 47 (30.1%)  
 Chinese 113 (36.2%) 40 (15.7%) 42 (46.2%) 25 (16.0%)  
 European 88 (28.2%) 68 (26.8%) 7 (7.7%) 38 (24.4%)  
 South Asian 74 (23.7%) 57 (22.4%) 28 (30.8%) 46 (29.5%)  
Family history of CVD present (%) 149 (47.8%) 113 (44.5%) 43 (47.3%) 71 (45.5%) 0.88
Maximum education 0.002
 Less than high school 27 (8.7%) 40 (15.7%) 6 (6.6%) 23 (14.7%)  
 High school graduate 62 (64.5%) 46 (18.1%) 29 (31.9%) 31 (19.9%)  
 Some post-secondary education 35 (11.2%) 48 (18.9%) 10 (11.0%) 24 (15.4%)  
 Post-secondary degree/diploma 133 (42.6%) 94 (37.0%) 39 (42.9%) 53 (34.0%)  
 Post graduate education 55 (17.6%) 25 (9.8%) 7 (7.7%) 24 (15.4%)  
Annual income level 0.099
 < $20,000 36 (11.5%) 36 (14.2%) 14 (15.4%) 24 (15.4%)  
 $20,000–$30,000 40 (12.8%) 33 (13.0%) 11 (12.1%) 21 (13.5%)  
 $30,000–$40,000 35 (11.2%) 40 (15.7%) 16 (17.6%) 29 (18.6%)  
 $40,000–$50,000 40 (12.8%) 25 (9.8%) 9 (9.9%) 25 (16.0%)  
 $50,000–$60,000 42 (13.5%) 17 (6.7%) 12 (13.2%) 12 (7.7%)  
 > $60,000 115 (36.9%) 95 (37.4%) 28 (30.8%) 44 (28.2%)  
Smoking < 0.001
 Never smoker 215 (68.9%) 140 (55.1%) 68 (74.7%) 79 (50.6%)  
 Former smoker 77 (24.7%) 87 (34.3%) 15 (16.5%) 48 (30.8%)  
 Current smoker 20 (6.4%) 27 (10.6%) 8 (8.8%) 29 (18.6%)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.0 ± 2.8 30.3 ± 4.0 25.1 ± 2.2 31.3 ± 4.4 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.09 ± 0.99 5.00 ± 0.89 5.73 ± 1.07 5.63 ± 0.91 < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.45 ± 0.36 1.26 ± 0.31 1.19 ± 0.35 1.08 ± 0.28 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm HG)a 112 [105, 120] 119 [111, 127] 115 [107, 124] 120 [114, 129] < 0.001
Intima media thickness (mm)a 0.63 [0.58, 0.71] 0.67 [0.60, 0.76] 0.64 [0.59, 0.72] 0.67 [0.60, 0.75] 0.001
Total area (mm2)a 14.62 [12.20, 21.05] 16.60 [13.10, 25.31] 15.47 [11.90, 24.36] 17.60 [13.50, 23.54] 0.01
Presence of plaque 154 (49.4%) 133 (52.4%) 45 (49.5%) 96 (61.5%) 0.08
  1. Categorical variables presented as n (%). Normally distributed continuous variables presented as mean ± SD
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, MET metabolic equivalent, BMI body mass index, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HTGW hypertriglyceridemic waist, WC waist circumference, TG triglycerides