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Table 4 Clinical characteristics of young ACS patients according to homocysteine levels

From: Associations between hyperhomocysteinemia and the presence and severity of acute coronary syndrome in young adults ≤ 35 years of age

Characteristics HCY ≤ 15 µmol/L (n = 314) HCY > 15 µmol/L (n = 514) P
Baseline characteristics    
Age (years) 33 (30–34) 32 (30–34) 0.303
Male, n (%) 295 (93.95) 500 (97.28) 0.026
Drinker, n (%) 64 (20.38) 84 (16.34) 0.161
Traditional coronary risk factors    
BMI (kg/m2) 28.38 ± 4.09 28.60 ± 4.95 0.553
Smoker, n (%) 215 (68.47) 357 (69.46) 0.816
Hypertension, n (%) 154 (49.04) 248 (48.25) 0.830
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 91 (28.98) 71 (13.81)  < 0.001
Family history of CAD, n (%) 41 (13.06) 75 (14.59) 0.606
Laboratory results    
TG (mmol/L) 1.84 (1.26–3.06) 1.94 (1.36–2.84) 0.571
TC (mmol/L) 4.80 ± 1.56 4.65 ± 1.69 0.213
HDL-C (mmol/L) 0.91 ± 0.22 0.90 ± 0.20 0.729
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.06 ± 1.55 2.97 ± 1.52 0.386
CR (µmol/L) 71.83 ± 13.30 76.16 ± 13.04 < 0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 109.30 (96.80–126.00) 104.70 (91.10–118.65) 0.002
hs CRP (mg/L) 3.10 (1.12–11.9) 2.97 (0.98–11.77) 0.818
UA (µmol/L) 397.56 ± 89.78 417.65 ± 99.77 0.004
Clinical type of ACS    
STEMI, n (%) 100 (31.85) 201 (39.11) 0.041
NSTEMI, n (%) 73 (23.25) 94 (18.29) 0.090
UAP, n (%) 141 (44.90) 219 (42.61) 0.563
CAG characters    
None 25 (7.96) 24 (4.67) 0.068
Single-vessel, n (%) 142 (45.22) 209 (40.66) 0.218
Double-vessel, n (%) 71 (22.61) 132 (25.68) 0.360
Triple-vessel, n (%) 76 (24.20) 149 (28.99) 0.147
Multi-vessel, n (%) 147 (46.82) 281 (54.67) 0.036
Gensini Score 30 (12–48) 32 (16–62) 0.043
Cardiac function    
LVEF 60 (56–65) 60 (52–65) 0.01
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, medians with interquartile range or number (%)
  2. CAD coronary artery disease, ACS acute coronary syndrome, BMI body mass index, HCY homocysteine, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CR creatinine, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, UA uric acid, STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, NSTEMI non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, UAP Unstable Angina Pectoris, CAG coronary angiography, hs CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, UA uric acid, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
  3. Bold values indicate statistical significance