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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of study participants

From: Associations between hyperhomocysteinemia and the presence and severity of acute coronary syndrome in young adults ≤ 35 years of age

Characteristics ACS (n = 828) Non-CAD (n = 275) P
Age (years) 33 (30–34) 32 (30–34) 0.206
Male, n (%) 795 (96.01) 245 (89.09) < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 126.04 ± 16.01 125.69 ± 14.66 0.64
DBP (mmHg) 77.71 ± 13.26 76.95 ± 11.48 0.297
HR (bpm) 75.73 ± 11.94 73.45 ± 12.09 0.004
Drinker, n (%) 148 (17.87) 56 (20.36) 0.361
Medical history and coronary risk factors    
Smoker, n (%) 572 (69.08) 139 (50.55) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 28.52 ± 4.64 26.80 ± 4.75 < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 402 (48.55) 92 (33.45) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 162 (19.57) 21 (7.64) < 0.001
Hypertriglyceridemia, n (%) 468 (56.52) 89 (32.36) < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia, n (%) 257 (31.04) 52 (18.91) < 0.001
High LDL-C, n (%) 237 (28.62) 44 (16.00) < 0.001
Low HDL-C, n (%) 580 (70.05) 138 (50.18)  < 0.001
Family history of CAD, n (%) 116 (14.01) 24 (8.73) 0.023
Familial hypercholesterolemia, n (%) 25 (3.02) 1 (0.36) 0.01
Hyperuricemia, n (%) 367 (44.32) 97 (35.27) 0.008
Hyperhomocysteinemia, n (%) 514 (62.08) 72 (26.18) < 0.001
Prior stroke, n (%) 4 (0.48) 0 (0.00) 0.577
Laboratory results    
BUN (mmol/L) 4.94 ± 1.39 4.79 ± 1.34 0.1
CR (µmol/L) 74.68 ± 15.14 74.69 ± 14.08 0.988
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 106.30 (92.80, 120.60) 103.40 (93.60, 116.20) 0.064
FBG (mmol/L) 5.35 (4.91–6.43) 5.04 (4.79–5.60) < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.6 (5.2–6.2) 5.4 (5.1–5.7) < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.88 (1.31–2.89) 1.45 (1.01–2.18) < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.72 ± 1.78 4.34 ± 1.03 < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 0.91 ± 0.21 1.02 ± 0.22 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.01 ± 1.61 2.65 ± 0.98 < 0.001
UA (µmol/L) 410.19 ± 96.67 385.83 ± 93.82 < 0.001
HCY (µmol/L) 16.55 (11.93–29.68) 12.50 (9.71–17.42) < 0.001
hs CRP (mg/L) 3.11 (1.09–11.40) 1.12 (0.49–2.80) < 0.001
Cardiac function    
LVEF 60 (54–65) 66 (62–68) < 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, medians with interquartile range or number (%)
  2. CAD coronary artery disease, ACS acute coronary syndrome, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, BMI body mass index, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CR creatinine, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, UA uric acid, HCY homocysteine, hs CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
  3. Bold values indicate statistical significance