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Table 3 Determinants of in-hospital death

From: Impact of hospital volume on clinical outcomes of hospitalized heart failure patients: analysis of a nationwide database including 447,818 patients with heart failure

  Univariate logistic regression analysis Multivariable logistic regression fitted with generalized estimating equation
Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval p value Odds ratio 95% Confidence interval p value
Hospital volume       
Low Reference    Reference   
Medium 0.90 0.88–0.93 < 0.001 0.91 0.83–0.99 0.035
High 0.87 0.84–0.89 < 0.001 0.86 0.78–0.95 0.004
Age (years) 1.05 1.05–1.06 < 0.001 1.04 1.04–1.04 < 0.001
Sex       
Female Reference    Reference   
Male 0.86 0.84–0.88 < 0.001 1.27 1.23–1.32 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.90 0.90–0.90 < 0.001 0.95 0.95–0.96 < 0.001
Hypertension 0.43 0.42–0.44 < 0.001 0.53 0.50–0.55 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 0.78 0.76–0.80 < 0.001 1.03 0.99–1.06 0.120
Chronic renal failure 1.71 1.66–1.75 < 0.001 1.57 1.51–1.63 < 0.001
Chronic liver disease 1.33 1.26–1.40 < 0.001 1.45 1.36–1.55 < 0.001
Chronic respiratory disease 1.01 0.98–1.05 0.568 0.98 0.94–1.03 0.473
Myocardial infarction 1.93 1.83–2.04 < 0.001 1.46 1.35–1.57 < 0.001
Dilated cardiomyopathy 0.87 0.83–0.91 < 0.001 1.19 1.13–1.26 < 0.001
Smoking 0.68 0.66–0.69 < 0.001 0.88 0.85–0.92 < 0.001
New York Heart Association       
Class II Reference    Reference   
Class III 1.92 1.85–1.99 < 0.001 1.68 1.58–1.79 < 0.001
Class IV 4.49 4.33–4.66 < 0.001 3.36 3.11–3.63 < 0.001
Ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation 1.77 1.69–1.85 < 0.001 1.97 1.83–2.11 < 0.001
Shock 5.76 5.49–6.04 < 0.001 3.20 2.85–3.60 < 0.001
Anemia 1.55 1.50–1.59 < 0.001 1.35 1.30–1.41 < 0.001
Barthel Index per 10 0.84 0.83–0.84 < 0.001 0.89 0.89–0.90 < 0.001
Administration within two days       
Beta blocker 0.61 0.59–0.63 < 0.001 0.94 0.90–0.97 < 0.001
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor 0.41 0.40–0.42 < 0.001 0.62 0.60–0.65 < 0.001
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist 0.63 0.61–0.65 < 0.001 0.83 0.80–0.86 < 0.001
Intravenous inotropic agent 2.88 2.81–2.95 < 0.001 2.13 2.04–2.23 < 0.001
Intravenous nitrate 0.64 0.62–0.66 < 0.001 0.57 0.54–0.60 < 0.001
Intravenous furosemide 1.32 1.29–1.36 < 0.001 0.97 0.94–1.01 0.172