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Table 1 Characteristics of study population

From: Impact of hospital volume on clinical outcomes of hospitalized heart failure patients: analysis of a nationwide database including 447,818 patients with heart failure

  Hospital volume  
Low (n = 149,182) Medium (n = 149,507) High (n = 149,129) p value
Number of hospital 648 190 107  
Number of patients in each hospital 400 (276–504) 810 (692–919) 1405 (1158–1634)  
Age (years) 81 (72–87) 81 (72–87) 80 (71–86) < 0.001
Age ≥ 85 years 53,068 (35.6) 51,603 (34.5) 48,549 (32.6) < 0.001
Male sex 78,205 (52.4) 79,548 (53.2) 80,439 (53.9) < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.1 (19.6–25.0) 22.2 (19.6–25.0) 22.0 (19.5–24.8) < 0.001
Hypertension 96,539 (64.7) 102,989 (68.9) 101,547 (68.1) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 45,518 (30.5) 48,361 (32.3) 47,140 (31.6) < 0.001
Chronic renal failure 20,996 (14.1) 22,222 (14.9) 22,285 (14.9) < 0.001
Chronic liver disease 6086 (4.1) 6185 (4.1) 5246 (3.5) < 0.001
Chronic respiratory disease 17,282 (11.6) 17,707 (11.8) 15,752 (10.6) < 0.001
Smoking 43,317 (29.0) 48,219 (32.3) 52,262 (35.0) < 0.001
Myocardial infarction 3,699 (2.5) 4,182 (2.8) 4,636 (3.1) < 0.001
Dilated cardiomyopathy 10,853 (7.3) 11,463 (7.7) 11,810 (7.9) < 0.001
Ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation 5,751 (3.9) 6,664 (4.5) 7,874 (5.3) < 0.001
Shock 2,918 (2.0) 3,167 (2.1) 2,680 (1.8) < 0.001
Anemia 21,466 (14.4) 24,775 (16.6) 25,373 (17.0) < 0.001
Barthel Index 65 (15–100) 65 (15–100) 55 (5–100) < 0.001
New York Heart Association     < 0.001
Class II 46,002 (30.8) 43,519 (29.1) 40,294 (27.0)  
Class III 58,106 (38.9) 57,366 (38.4) 55,967 (37.5)  
Class IV 45,074 (30.2) 48,622 (32.5) 52,868 (35.5)  
Medications within two days after admission     
Beta blocker 44,322 (29.7) 48,517 (32.5) 55,547 (37.2) < 0.001
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor 50,814 (34.1) 53,377 (35.7) 62,167 (41.7) < 0.001
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor 21,565 (14.5) 23,160 (15.5) 26,987 (18.1) < 0.001
Angiotensin II receptor blocker 30,206 (20.2) 31,180 (20.9) 36,480 (24.5) < 0.001
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist 44,609 (29.9) 47,290 (31.6) 53,716 (36.0) < 0.001
Intravenous inotropic agent 24,788 (16.6) 25,138 (16.8) 28,310 (19.0) < 0.001
Intravenous nitrate 26,825 (18.0) 31,741 (21.2) 34,999 (23.5) < 0.001
Intravenous furosemide 97,917 (65.6) 101,240 (67.7) 105,515 (70.8) < 0.001
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage)