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Table 4 Results of Cox proportional hazard regression analyses in rEF

From: Differing effects of beta-blockers on long-term clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention between patients with mid-range and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

  Univariable Multivariable
HR 95% CI p HR 95% CI p
Age: 1-year increase 1.06 1.04–1.09  < 0.001 1.04 1.02–1.07  < 0.001
Men: yes 0.60 0.36–1.05 0.070 0.84 0.48–1.55 0.556
Hypertension: yes 0.89 0.58–1.38 0.595    
Diabetes Mellitus: yes 0.74 0.49–1.11 0.145    
CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2): yes 2.83 1.83–4.46  < 0.001 1.72 1.05–2.86 0.030
Family History of IHD: yes 0.93 0.57–1.47 0.759    
Current smoking: yes 0.71 0.40–1.19 0.199    
LDL-C: 1 mg/dL increase 1.00 0.99–1.00 0.589    
HDL-C: 1 mg/dL increase 1.01 0.99–1.02 0.536    
LVEF: 1% increase 0.97 0.94–0.99 0.034 0.98 0.95–1.01 0.118
Multivessel disease: yes 1.47 0.92–2.43 0.108    
Acute Coronary Syndrome: yes 1.90 1.26–2.91 0.002 1.61 1.02–2.54 0.041
Statins use: yes 0.55 0.35–0.84 0.005 1.01 0.62–1.65 0.953
ACEIs/ARBs use: yes 0.43 0.28–0.64  < 0.001 0.59 0.37–0.95 0.029
Aspirin use: yes 0.53 0.32–0.95 0.034 0.66 0.37–1.25 0.194
Beta blocker use: yes 0.53 0.34–0.81 0.003 0.59 0.36–0.97 0.036
  1. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CI confidence interval, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HR hazard ratio, IHD ischemic heart disease, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction; mrEF, mid-range ejection fraction