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Table 2 Echocardiographic and carotid and vertebral artery measurements

From: Aerobic exercise, but not isometric handgrip exercise, improves endothelial function and arterial stiffness in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing coronary intervention: a randomized pilot study

  AE (n = 10) IE (n = 10) p value
Ejection fraction (Simpson method) 55.3 ± 8.7 55.9 ± 8.2 0.876
RPE    0.639
 ≥ 0.42 (cardiac remodeling) 3 4  
 < 0.42 (normal) 7 6  
Left ventricular EDV (mL) 4.8 ± 0.5 4.8 ± 0.5 0.802
Left ventricular ESV (mL) 3.1 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.4 0.823
Left atrium (cm) 3.6 ± 0.4 3.8 ± 0.3 0.134
Diastolic dysfunction    0.572
 None (normal function) 2 2  
 Grade 1 (impaired relaxation) 7 7  
 Grade 2 (pseudo-normal) 0 1  
 Grade 3 (restrictive) 1 0  
Systolic pulmonary pressure    0.368
 Normal (< 30 mmHg) 9 9  
 Mild (30–50 mmHg) 1 0  
 Moderate to severe (> 50 mmHg) 0 1  
Left ventricular mass (g) 83.4 ± 18.2 94.9 ± 22.1 0.219
Carotid artery status    0.506
 1. < 50% stenosis 5 3  
 2. 50–69% stenosis 4 5  
 3. ≥ 70% stenosis 1 1  
4. Subocclusion 0 1  
Presence of atherosclerotic plaque    0.606
 Yes 8 7  
 No 2 3  
  1. AE, aerobic exercise session; IE, isometric exercise session; RPE, relative parietal thickness; EDV, end-diastolic volume; ESV, end-systolic volume; carotid stenosis classification (PSV, peak systolic velocity; ICA, internal carotid artery): < 50% carotid stenosis: ICA PSV < 125 cm/s; carotid plaque with < 50% cross-sectional luminal narrowing; (2) 50%–69% carotid stenosis: ICA PSV 125–230 cm/s; plaque with ≥ 50% cross-sectional luminal narrowing; (3) ≥ 70% carotid stenosis: ICA PSV > 230 cm/s; plate with > 50% cross-sectional luminal narrowing; (4) carotid sub-occlusion: PSV variables; plate with large carotid sub-occlusion. Student's t-test for independent samples or the chi-square test were used when applicable; p < 0.05