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Table 2 Demographics of PAF and PsAF patients for circRNA expression validation and serum TGF-β1 level quantification

From: The potential regulatory role of hsa_circ_0004104 in the persistency of atrial fibrillation by promoting cardiac fibrosis via TGF-β pathway

  PsAF (n = 30) PAF (n = 30) p value
Age, years 64 ± 9.46 63.67 ± 5.74 0.87
Male, n (%) 22 (73.3) 21(70) 0.774
BMI, kg/m2 27.28 ± 3.92 26.49 ± 4.07 0.452
Heart rate, bpm 88.77 ± 17.51 83.37 ± 23.88 0.322
CAD, n (%) 9 (30) 5 (16.7) 0.222
HTN, n (%) 18 (60) 20 (66.7%) 0.592
DM, n (%) 7 (23.3) 9 (30) 0.559
Smoke, n (%) 8 (26.7) 9 (30) 0.627
AF duration, months 14.3 ± 2.6 8.4 ± 2.9 0.056
LAD, mm 42.43 ± 4.35 40.72 ± 4.65 0.61
LVEF, % 63 ± 7.77 63.53 ± 7.46 0.787
LVEDD, mm 48.8 ± 4.05 49.2 ± 4.31 0.712
HbA1c, % 6.43 ± 1.02 5.81 ± 1.9 0.126
LDL, mmol/L 2.25 ± 0.84 2.56 ± 0.82 0.156
Creatine, µmol/L 74.15 ± 16.19 71.56 ± 17.13 0.55
BNP, pg/ml 1506.82 ± 719.46 1142.11 ± 782.98 0.185
β-blockers, n (%) 21 (70) 20 (66.7) 0.603
ACEI/ARB, n (%) 11 (36.7) 13 (43.3) 0.511
hsa_circ_0004104 0.6 ± 0.33 1.46 ± 0.41  < 0.001
TGF-β1, pg/ml 5560.23 ± 1833.64 2236.66 ± 914.89  < 0.001
  1. Data are number (%) and mean ± SD
  2. PsAF, persistent atrial fibrillation; PAF, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; bpm, beats per minute; CAD, coronary artery disease; HTN, hypertension; DM, diabetes mellitus; AF, atrial fibrillation; LAD, left atrial diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEDD, left ventricular end diastolic diameter; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; LDL, low density lipoprotein. BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, agiotensin Receptor Blocker; TGF-β1, Transforming growth factor-beta 1