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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the individuals included in the analysis

From: Use of lipid parameters to identify apparently healthy men at high risk of arterial stiffness progression

Variables Total
(n = 659)
Reduction in/persistently low baPWV
(n = 328)
Increase in/persistently high baPWV
(n = 331)
p valuea Non-elevated baPWV
(n = 348)
Incident elevated baPWV
(n = 100)
p valueb
Age, years 47.4 ± 10.7 43.4 ± 8.7 51.5 ± 10.9  < 0.001 43.2 ± 8.8 49.8 ± 7.9  < 0.001
Smoker, % 241 (36.6) 125 (38.1) 116 (35.0) 0.46 140 (40.2) 34 (34.0) 0.31
BMI, kg/m2 24.6 ± 2.8 24.7 ± 2.6 24.6 ± 2.9 0.84 24.6 ± 2.8 24.5 ± 3.1 0.71
SBP, mm Hg 121 ± 11 119 ± 11 123 ± 11  < 0.001 117 ± 10 121 ± 10 0.003
DBP, mm Hg 75 ± 9 73 ± 9 76 ± 9  < 0.001 71 ± 8 75 ± 8  < 0.001
MAP, mm Hg 90 ± 9 89 ± 9 92 ± 9  < 0.001 87 ± 8 90 ± 8  < 0.001
Heart rate, beats/min 67 ± 10 66 ± 10 68 ± 9 0.008 65 ± 9 66 ± 8 0.10
ABI 1.10 ± 0.08 1.09 ± 0.08 1.11 ± 0.08 0.005 1.09 ± 0.08 1.11 ± 0.08 0.03
FBG, mmol/L 5.04 ± 0.52 4.99 ± 0.50 5.08 ± 0.54 0.03 4.97 ± 0.50 5.08 ± 0.53 0.06
HbA1c, % 5.58 ± 0.31 5.55 ± 0.31 5.61 ± 0.30 0.02 5.54 ± 0.30 5.61 ± 0.27 0.05
creatinine, μmol/L 81.0 ± 10.8 81.2 ± 10.2 80.8 ± 11.3 0.68 81.3 ± 10.4 80.7 ± 11.9 0.60
Uric acid, umol/L 376 ± 76 376 ± 76 376 ± 76 0.94 373 ± 75 385 ± 80 0.18
TC, mmol/L 4.74 ± 0.86 4.74 ± 0.83 4.74 ± 0.90 0.97 4.71 ± 0.83 4.78 ± 0.92 0.50
TG, mmol/L 1.36 (1.01) 1.30 (0.83) 1.42 (1.09) 0.005 1.29 (0.80) 1.60 (1.08) 0.005
LDL-C, mmol/L 2.94 ± 0.74 2.96 ± 0.69 2.92 ± 0.78 0.43 2.96 ± 0.72 2.91 ± 0.81 0.62
Non-HDL-C, mmol/L 3.56 ± 0.84 3.54 ± 0.81 3.59 ± 0.87 0.52 3.52 ± 0.83 3.61 ± 0.90 0.39
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.18 ± 0.26 1.20 ± 0.25 1.16 ± 0.28 0.06 1.19 ± 0.24 1.17 ± 0.32 0.60
TC/HDL-C 4.18 ± 1.02 4.10 ± 0.98 4.26 ± 1.06 0.04 4.09 ± 1.02 4.26 ± 1.06 0.16
TG/HDL-C 1.21 (1.04) 1.11 (0.87) 1.30 (1.22) 0.003 1.11 (0.90) 1.51 (1.35) 0.01
LDL-C/HDL-C 2.59 ± 0.74 2.56 ± 0.71 2.61 ± 0.78 0.32 2.56 ± 0.73 2.61 ± 0.82 0.65
Non-HDL-C/HDL-C 3.18 ± 1.02 3.10 ± 0.98 3.26 ± 1.06 0.04 3.09 ± 1.02 3.26 ± 1.06 0.15
Baseline baPWV, cm/s 1340 ± 209 1280 ± 165 1410 ± 226  < 0.001 1210 ± 100 1300 ± 70 0.001
Follow-up baPWV, cm/s 1410 ± 245 1250 ± 112 1570 ± 240  < 0.001 1250 ± 95 1520 ± 99 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range), or n (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, ABI ankle-brachial index, FBG fasting blood glucose, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. aReduction in/persistently low baPWV versus increase in/persistently high baPWV
  4. bNon-eleated baPWV versus incident elevated baPWV. p values were calculated using unpaired t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, or χ2 test, as appropriate