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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Lipid profile and prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Study Publication year Country Sample size Age at baseline Percentage male (%) Disease status Follow-up (year) Exposure Adjusted factors NOS score
Sigurdsson [19] 1995 Iceland 9141 34–79 100.0 CHD 5–20 Per SD increment Age, smoking, glucose tolerance 90 min, heart volume 7
Tervahauta [20] 1995 Finland 171 65–84 100.0 CHD 5.0 Per SD increment Age, area of residence, SBP, DBP, BMI, smoking habit and use of antihypertensive medication 6
Behar [21] 1997 Israel 11,563 45–74 78.3 CHD 3.3 Per SD increment; TC: < 160 mg/dL versus > 160 mg/dL Age, gender, HDL; glucose, NYHA, previous MI, DM, COPD, hypertension, PVD, angina, current smoking 8
Mabuchi [22] 2002 Japan 4599 60.1 42.2 Hypercholesterolemia and CHD 6.0 Per 1 Log TG increment Gender, age, hypertension, DM mellitus, smoking habit, and a history of MI 7
Vittinghoff [23] 2003 US 2763 66.6 0.0 CHD 4.1 Per SD increment Age, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol, exercise, DM, previous MI, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, history of congestive heart failure 8
Leander [24] 2007 Sweden 1635 45–70 67.3 CHD 6–9 HDL (< 30.9/< 38.7 mg/dL versus > 30.9/ > 38.7 mg/dL) Family history of CHD, current smoking, ex-smoking, job strain, PA, central obesity, DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low socio-economic status, high peak cardiac enzyme, heart failure, beta-blocker therapy, and thrombolysis 8
Al-Mallah [25] 2009 US 517 62.5 59.6 Non ST segment elevation MI 3.0 LDL (> 105 versus < 105 mg/dL) Crude 6
Ghazzal [26] 2009 US 4088 64.8 70.9 CHD after PCI 1.0 HDL (< 35 versus > 35 mg/dL) Age, DM, PCI, EF 7
Seo [27] 2011 Korea 2693 62.5 66.1 CHD after PCI 2.3 HDL (< 40/50 versus > 40/50 mg/dL) Age, sex, hypertension, DM, chronic renal disease, current smoker, ACS, ejection fraction, baseline HDL, baseline LDL, baseline TG, baseline hs-CRP, follow-up LDL, follow-up TG, follow-up hs-CRP, total stent length, mean stent diameter, number of stent, number of B2/C lesions 7
Bacquer [28] 2013 Europe 5216  ≤ 70.0 76.0 CHD 5.4 TC (< 174 versus > 232 mg/dL); HDL (< 38.7/46.4 versus > 46.4/54.1 mg/dL); LDL (> 116 versus < 96.7 mg/dL) Age and gender 7
Lin [29] 2013 China 1114 65.5 74.9 CHD 5.3 HDL (< 40/45 versus > 40/45 mg/dL) Age, gender, smoking status, LDL, uric acid, creatinine, hypertension, DM, stroke, cancer, number of blocked coronary artery, MI, PCI, CABG, and medication status 7
van de Woestijne [30] 2013 The Netherlands 5731 60.0 74.1 clinically manifest vascular disease 4.9 TG (198.4 versus < 85.9 mg/dL) Age, gender, smoking, lipid-lowering medication, BMI and LDL-C 8
Ding [31] 2014 China 1916 63.7 65.2 CHD 3.1 HDL (40–49 versus > 70 mg/dL); LDL (> 190 versus < 70 mg/dL) Age, gender, education, marriage, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, type, severity, duration, and treatment of CHD, history of DM, history of heart failure, BMI, SBP, glomerular filtration rate, and use of antihypertensive drugs, antidiabetic drugs, antiplatelet drugs, use of cholesterol-lowering drugs 7
Martin [32] 2014 US 4879 60.4 66.8 Acute MI 5.0 HDL (< 40 versus > 40 mg/dL) GRACE score, age, sex, race, insurance, education, tobacco use, DM, hypertension, AUDIT alcohol use scores, PA, BMI, non-HDL-C, log-transformed triglycerides, statins, and non-statin lipid-modifying medications, and site 7
Park [33] 2015 Korea 595 63.5 65.2 CHD after PCI 3.0 Lipoprotein(a) (> 50 versus < 50 mg/dL) Gender, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, multivessel disease, minimal luminal diameter after PCI, reference vessel diameter after PCI, LDLcholesterol, total lesion length 6
Li [34] 2016 China 591 57.8 71.2 CHD 1.4 HDL (< 41.6 versus > 41.6 mg/dL) Age, male, BMI, smoke, family history of CHD, previous PCI/CABG, previous MI, SBP, LDL, TG, and glucose 6
Liu [35] 2017 China 4205 57.7 71.4 CHD 2.3 Not mentioned Age, gender, BMI, hypertension, DM, smoking, family history of CHD, left ventricular ejection fraction 7
Tsai [36] 2017 China 1520 69.0 72.8 CHD 2.7 Per SD increment Age, gender, education, marital status, malnourished, economic situation, smoking, alcohol, PA, DM, hypertension, medications 7
Nordenskjöld [37] 2018 Sweden 9092 65.5 38.0 MI with with non-obstructive coronary artery disease 4.5 Per SD increment Gender, age, DM, hypertension, smoking status, previous MI, previous stroke, ECG changes at admission, creatinine, CRP, total cholesterol, LVEF measured during index stay and serious non-cardiac diseases 8
Dai [38] 2018 China 4090 61.1 67.9 CHD 3.3 Per SD increment Other traditional cardiovascular risk factors 7
Winter [39] 2018 Austria 102 37.3 79.4 Premature MI 10.3 Per SD increment Age and gender 6
  1. ACS acute coronary syndrome, BMI body mass index, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CHD coronary heart disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DBP diastolic blood pressure, DM diabetes mellitus, HDL high density lipoprotein, hs-CRP high sensitivity C reactive protein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MI myocardial infarction, PA physical inactivity, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, PVD peripheral vascular disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, TG triglycerides