Skip to main content

Table 2 Echographic and biological characteristics of Black hypertensive patients, stratified by the presence or absence of LVH

From: Association between insulin resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy in asymptomatic, Black, sub-Saharan African, hypertensive patients: a case–control study

Variables LVH + 
n = 88
LVH − 
n = 132
P
Echocardiographic measurements    
LVED (mm) 46.5 ± 4.4 42.9 ± 4.1  < 0.001
IVS (mm) 12.7 ± 1.1 10.7 ± 1.5  < 0.001
PWT (mm) 12.5 ± 0.8 10.7 ± 1.5  < 0.001
SWT (mm) 25.2 ± 1.6 21.3 ± 2.9  < 0.001
LVEF (%) 63.8 ± 5.4 65.1 ± 4.9 0.062
LVM (g) 222.2 ± 38.4 156.8 ± 34.8  < 0.001
LVMIh (g/m2,7) 54.7 ± 8.4 37.6 ± 6.6  < 0.001
LVMIbsa (g/m2) 108.5 ± 15.7 79.7 ± 15.0  < 0.001
RWT 0.55 ± 0.1 0.50 ± 0.1 0.001
E (Cm/s) 0.85 ± 0.6 1.08 ± 0.6 0.029
E/A ratio 0.71 ± 0.2 0.99 ± 0.2 0.034
DT (ms) 215.8 ± 39.4 172.8 ± 37.7  < 0.001
E/e’ ratio 7.4 (4.9–7.5) 5.5 (4.5–7.0) ˂ 0.001
LAA (cm2) 17.3 ± 3.5 14.7 ± 2.7 ˂ 0.001
SPAP (mmHg) 26.9 ± 3.1 26.0 ± 2.7 0.019
Biological parameters    
TC (mmol/L) 5.5 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.0 0.305
LDL-c (mmol/L) 3.8 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1 0.126
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.25 ± 0.6 1.05 ± 0.6 0.027
HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.4 0.003
Glycemia (mmol/L) 6.3 ± 2.1 5.4 ± 1.6  < 0.001
HbA1C (%) 6.3 ± 1.6 5.9 ± 1.1 0.016
Insulinemia (mmol/L) 122.8 ± 43.1 72.7 ± 25.8  < 0.001
AI 5.2 ± 1.6 4.6 ± 1.8 0.008
HOMA-IR 2.36 ± 0.8 1.41 ± 0.6 0.014
Uric acid (mmol/L) 388.3 ± 98.4 352.9 ± 89.5 0.007
Creatinine (mmol/L) 84.7 ± 22.6 84.3 ± 16.2 0.854
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.30 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.2 0.105
Ionized calcium (mmol/L) 1.20 ± 0.11 1.22 ± 0.2 0.331
Phosphorus (mmol/L) 1.06 ± 0.2 1.09 ± 0.3 0.333
Dyslipidemia 75 (85.2) 98 (74.2) 0.036
High AI 45 (51.1) 48 (36.4) 0.021
T2DM 20 (22.7) 23 (17.4) 0.212
Hyperinsulinemia 8 (9.1) 11 (8.3) 0.514
IR 42 (47.7) 2 (1.5)  < 0.001
Hyperuricemia 29 (33.0) 22 (16.7) 0.004
  1. LVED = left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; IVS = interventricular septal thickness; PWT = posterior wall thickness; SWT = sum of wall thickness; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVM = left ventricular mass; LVMIh = left ventricular mass indexed to height2,7; LVMbsa = left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area; RWT = relative wall thickness; E = mitral E wave; E/A = ratio of peak early and late diastolic flow velocities; DT = deceleration time; e’ = mitral annular early diastolic velocity; LAA = left atrium area; SPAP = systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; TC = total cholesterol; LDL-c = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-c = high-density lipoprotein; AI = atherogenicity index; HbA1C = glycated hemoglobin; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance; IR = insulin resistance