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Table 3 Association of opium consumption with myocardial infarction and Ischemic heart diseases (n = 9952*)

From: Effect of opium consumption on cardiovascular diseases – a cross- sectional study based on data of Rafsanjan cohort study

  Crude model Adjusted model 1 Adjusted model 2 Adjusted model 3
OR (95%Ci)a OR(95%Ci)b OR (95%Ci)c OR(95%Ci)d
Ischemic heart diseases
 Opium consumption
 yes 1.68 (1.44–1.96) 1.51 (1.24–1.82) 1.57 (1.28–1.93) 1.51 (1.22–1.86)
 no 1 1 1 1
 Duration of opium consumption
 Non-user 1 1 1 1
 ≤ 5 year 0.95 (0.66–1.36) 0.94 (0.64–1.36) 0.97 (0.66–1.42) 0.84 (0.57–1.25)
 6–10 year 1.15 (0.83–1.60) 1.23 (0.87–1.75) 1.29 (0.90–1.86) 1.28 (0.89–1.85)
 11/15 year 1.66 (1.18–2.33) 1.86 (1.28–2.70) 1.99 (1.35–2.94) 2 (1.33–2.99)
 16/20 year 1.90 (1.42–2.55) 1.90 (1.37–2.64) 2.07 (1.46–2.92) 2.11 (1.48–3.01)
 > 20 year 2.74 (2.18–3.45) 1.82 (1.39–2.37) 1.94 (1.45–2.60) 1.99 (1.47–2.70)
 Route of opium consumption
 Non-user 1 1 1 1
 Smoking 1.60 (1.37–1.87) 1.45 (1.20–1.76) 1.50 (1.22–1.85) 1.47 (1.18–1.82)
 Oral consumption 3.30 (2.12–5.13) 2.33 (1.46–3.74) 2.46 (1.50–4.02) 2.30 (1.36–3.89)
Myocardial infarction
 Opium consumption
 yes 3.35 (2.64–4.25) 2.07 (1.56–2.73) 1.93 (1.42–2.63) 1.79 (1.31–2.45)
 no 1 1 1 1
 Duration of opium consumption
 Non-user 1 1 1 1
 ≤ 5 year 1.55 (0.89–2.71) 1.19 (0.67–2.11) 1.14 (0.64–2.04) 0.98 (0.54–1.79)
 6–10 year 1.69 (1–2.85) 1.22 (0.70–2.12) 1.19 (0.67–2.08) 1.20 (0.70–2.07)
 11-15 year 4.10 (2.64–6.37) 3.07 (1.91–4.93) 2.97 (1.80–4.89) 2.92 (1.76–4.84)
 16–20 year 4.67 (3.18–6.86) 3.064 (2.01–4.67) 3.04 (1.94–4.76) 3.11(1.97–4.89)
 > 20 year 5.08 (3.65–7.08) 2.29 (1.57–3.33) 2.20 (1.45–3.35) 2.15 (1.41–3.28)
 Route of opium consumption
 Non-user 1 1 1 1
 Smoking 3.23 (2.53–4.12) 2.02 (1.52–2.68) 1.89 (1.38–2.60) 1.77 (1.30–2.42)
 Oral consumption 5.54 (2.99–10.28) 2.81(1.47–5.35) 2.52 (1.28–4.95) 2.12 (1.04–4.30)
  1. *Excluding 38 individuals who have started opium after their illness
  2. aThe baseline model is stratified on the status of opium consumption
  3. bThe adjusted model 1 is adjusted for confounding variables age (continuous variable), gender (male/ female) and education years (continuous variable)
  4. CThe adjusted model 2 has additional adjustment for confounding the variables related to lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and hookah consumption) and physical activity level (continuous variable)
  5. dThe adjusted model 3 has additional adjustment for hypertension (yes/no), hypercholesterolemia (continuous variable), body mass index (continuous variable) and diabetes mellitus (yes/no), Triglycerides (continuous variable), LDL cholesterol (continuous variable), HDL cholesterol (continuous variable), S.G.O.T (AST) (continuous variable), S.G.P.T (ALT) (continuous variable), Alkaline phosphatase (continuous variable)