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Table 2 Prevalence of myocardial infarction and ischemic heart diseases among the participants in the Rafsanjan cohort study (n = 9990)

From: Effect of opium consumption on cardiovascular diseases – a cross- sectional study based on data of Rafsanjan cohort study

Characteristic Myocardial infarction P -value Ischemic heart diseases P -value
Opium consumption- no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 yes 154 (52.03)   313 (35.98)  
 no 142 (47.97) 557 (64.02)
Duration of opium consumption - no. (%)
 Non-user 142 (47.97) < 0.001 557 (64.02) < 0.001
 ≤ 5 year 21 (7.1)   61 (7.01)  
 6–10 year 21 (7.1) 52 (5.98)
 11/15 year 26 (8.78) 41 (4.71)
 16/20 year 35 (11.82) 56 (6.44)
 > 20 year 51 (17.23) 103 (11.84)
Route of opium consumption - no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 Smoking 140 (47.30)   282 (32.42)  
 Oral consumption 14 (4.73)   31 (3.56)  
Age cat- no. (%) < 0.001 0 (0.00) < 0.001
 35–44 18 (6.08)   56 (6.44)  
 45–54 64 (21.62) 201 (23.10)
 55–64 157 (53.04) 433 (49.77)
 ≥ 65 57 (19.26) 180 (20.69)
Gender- no. (%) < 0.001   0.003
 Female 85 (28.72)   424 (48.74)  
 Male 211 (71.28) 446 (51.26)
Education-no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 Illiterate 54 (18.24)   175 (20.11)  
 Elementary 84 (28.38) 263 (30.23)
 Guidance school 54 (18.24) 180 (20.69)
 Diploma 62 (20.95) 158 (18.16)
 College 42 (14.19) 94 (10.80)
Physical activity. Mean ± SD 36.66 ± 5.28 < 0.001 37.18 ± 5.28 < 0.001
Alcohol consumption- no. (%) 0.012   0.645
 yes 55 (18.58)   114 (13.12)  
 no 241 (81.42) 755 (86.88)  
Cigarette smoking -no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 yes 152 (51.35)   286 (32.91)  
 no 144 (48.65) 583 (67.09)
Hookah consumption- no. (%) 0.060   0.065
 yes 63 (21.28)   130 (14.96)  
 no 233 (78.72) 739 (85.04)
Hypertension- no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 yes 119 (40.20)   440 (50.57)  
 no 177 (59.80) 430 (49.43)
Cholesterol- no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 > 200(mg/dL) 86 (29.25)   269 (31.10)  
 ≤ 200 (mg/dL) 208 (70.75) 596 (68.90)
Triglycerides- no. (%) 0.224   0.824
 > 200 (mg/dL) 81(27.55)   215 (24.86)  
 ≤ 200(mg/dL) 213 (72.45) 650 (75.14)
LDL cholesterol - no. (%) 0.103   0.043
 > 130 (mg/dL) 52 (17.69)   163 (18.84)  
 ≤ 130 (mg/dL) 242 (82.31) 702 (81.16)
HDL cholesterol - no. (%) 0.001   0.069
 < 35 (mg/dL) 5 (1.70)   7 (0.81)  
 ≥ 35 (mg/dL) 289 (98.30) 858 (99.19)
S.G.O.T (AST) - no. (%) 0.046   0.617
 ≤ 39 (U/L) 280 (95.24)   838 (96.88)  
 > 39 (U/L) 14 (4.76) 27 (3.12)
S.G.P.T (ALT) - no. (%) 0.530   0.034
 ≤ 39 (U/L) 273 (92.86)   811 (93.76)  
 > 39 (U/L) 21 (7.14) 54 (6.24)
Alkaline phosphatase- no. (%) 0.004   0.007
 > 306 (IU/L) 43 (14.63)   107 (12.37)  
 ≤ 306 (IU/L) 251 (85.37) 758 (87.63)
BMI- no. (%) 0.065   0.137
 < 25 101 (34.12)   229 (26.32)  
 25–29.9 121 (40.88) 359 ( ( (41.26)
 ≥ 30 74 (25.00) 282 (32.41)
Diabetes mellitus- no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001
 yes 124 (41.89)   343 (39.43)  
 no 172 (58.11) 527 (60.57)
  1. BMI body mass index