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Table 1 Selected characteristics of the Rafsanjan cohort participants (n = 9990)

From: Effect of opium consumption on cardiovascular diseases – a cross- sectional study based on data of Rafsanjan cohort study

Status of opium consumption
Characteristics All (n = 9990) Non-user (n = 7612) User (n = 2378) P-Value
Age - yr. Mean ± SD 49.91 ± 9.56 49.33 ± 9.57 51.78 ± 9.31 < 0.001
Age- no. (%)    < 0.001
 35–44 3466 (34.69) 2833 (37.22) 633 (26.62)  
 45–54 3041 (30.43) 2290 (30.08) 750 (31.54)
 55–64 2759 (27.62) 1984 (26.06) 775 (32.59)
 ≥ 65 725 (7.26) 505 (6.63) 220 (9.25)
Gender- no. (%)    < 0.001
 Female 5335 (53.40) 5107 (67.09) 228 (9.59)  
 Male 4655 (46.60) 2505 (32.91) 2150 (90.41)
Education-no. (%)    < 0.001
 Illiterate 948 (9.50) 707 (9.30) 241 (10.13)  
 Elementary 2547 (25.52) 1961 (25.79) 586 (24.64)
 Guidance school 2479 (24.84) 1688 (22.20) 791 (33.26)
 Diploma 2368 (23.73) 1845 (24.27) 523 (21.99)
 College 1639 (16.42) 1402 (18.44) 237 (9.97)
Physical activity Mean ± SD 38.77 ± 6.36 38.47 ± 5.59 8.29 ± 39.72 < 0.001
Alcohol consumption- no. (%)    < 0.001
 yes 1351 (13.63) 469 (6.21) 882 (37.33)  
 no 8561 (86.37) 7080 (93.79) 1481 (62.67)
Cigarette smoking-no. (%)    < 0.001
 Yes 2541 (25.66) 816 (10.82) 1725 (73.03)  
 No 7362 (74.34) 6725 (89.18) 637 (26.97)
Hookah smoking- no. (%)    < 0.001
 yes 1706 (17.22) 969 (12.84) 737 (31.20)  
 No 8202 (82.78) 6577 (87.16) 1625 (68.80)
Hypertension- no. (%)    < 0.001
 yes 2235 (22.50) 1823 (24.13) 412 (17.33)  
 No 7698 (77.50) 5732 (75.87) 1966 (82.67)
Cholesterol- no. (%)   < 0.001
 > 200(mg/dL) 4279 (43.04) 3404 (44.91) 875 (37.06)  
 ≤ 200(mg/dL) 5662 (56.96) 4176 (55.09) 1486 (62.94)
 Mean ± SD 198.78 ± 41.89 200.66 ± 42.74 192.73 ± 38.43 < 0.001
Triglycerides- no. (%)    < 0.001
 > 200(mg/dL) 2437 (24.53) 1779 (23.49) 658 (27.89)  
 ≤ 200(mg/dL) 7496 (75.47) 5795 (76.51) 1701 (72.11)
 Mean ± SD 168.88 ± 109.22 165.86 ± 107. 28 178.57 ± 114.71 < 0.001
LDL cholesterol - no. (%)    < 0.001
 > 130(mg/dL) 2143 (21.56) 1718 (22.66) 425 (18.00)  
 ≤ 130(mg/dL) 7798 (78.44) 5862 (77.34) 1936 (82.00)
 Mean ± SD 108.04 ± 30.49 109.23 ± 30.36 104.21 ± 30.61 < 0.001
HDL cholesterol - no. (%)    0.029
 < 35(mg/dL) 42 (0.42) 26 (0.34) 16(0.68)  
 ≥ 35(mg/dL) 9899 (99.58) 7554 (99.66) 2345 (99.32)
 Mean ± SD 57.90 ± 12.45 59.04 ± 12.67 54.24 ± 10.95 < 0.001
S.G.O.T (AST) - no. (%)    0.329
 ≤ 39(U/L) 286 (2.88) 225 (2.97) 61 (2.58)  
 > 39(U/L) 9655 (97.12) 7355 (97.03) 2300 (97.42)
 Mean ± SD 19.87 ± 11.81 19.72 ± 11.62 20.36 ± 12.38 0.022
S.G.P.T (ALT) - no. (%)    0.052
 ≤ 39(U/L) 9130 (91.84) 6939 (91.54) 2191 (92.80)  
 > 39(U/L) 811 (8.16) 641 (8.46) 170 (7.20)
 Mean ± SD 21.55 ± 15.37 21.74 ± 15.38 20.95 ± 15.32 0.030
Alkaline phosphatase- no. (%)    < 0.001
 > 306 (IU/L) 972 (9.78) 663 (8.75) 309 (13.09)  
 ≤ 306 (IU/L) 8969 (90.22) 6917 (91.25) 2052 (86.91)
 Mean ± SD 225.48 ± 66.81 222.05 ± 65.86 236.50 ± 68.66 < 0.001
BMI- no. (%)     < 0.001
 < 25 2894 (28.97) 1813 (23.82) 1081 (45.46)  
 25–29.9 4089 (40.94) 3213 (42.22) 876 (36.84)
 ≥ 30 3006 (30.09) 2585 (33.96) 421 (17.70)
 Mean ± SD 27.79 ± 4.99 28.40 ± 4.91 25.84 ± 4.76 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus- no. (%)    0.005
 yes 1933 (19.46) 1517 (20.08) 416 (17.49)  
 no 8000 (80.54) 6038 (79.92) 1962 (82.51)
  1. BMI body mass index