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Table 4 Crude and adjusted odds ratio from logistic regression of self-reported history of major cardiovascular events (reference = no cardiovascular events) by fruit and vegetable intake, socio-demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors among persons aged 25–65 years respondents from Pokhara Municipality, Nepal, 2015

From: Factors affecting the fruit and vegetable intake in Nepal and its association with history of self-reported major cardiovascular events

Characteristics CORa
(Having cardiovascular events)
95% CI AORb
(Having cardiovascular events)
95% CI
Lower Bound Upper Bound Lower Bound Upper Bound
No. of servings a day (N = 2815)
 < 3 servings 1.82 0.96 3.47 2.22 1.06 4.66
 ≥ 3 servings Ref
Age (in years)
(N = 2656)
1.04 1.01 1.07 1.01 0.97 1.04
Sex (N = 2815)
 Male 1.22 0.72 2.07 0.93 0.43 1.98
 Female Ref
Educational level (N = 2815)
 Up to primary 0.73 0.28 1.90 0.58 0.17 2.05
 Secondary and high school 0.73 0.27 1.94 0.75 0.25 2.21
 College/ university Ref
Ethnicity (N = 2815)
 Upper caste 1.09 0.62 1.93 1.27 0.63 2.55
 Others 0.81 0.34 1.95 0.81 0.30 2.21
 Janajati Ref
Diabetes Mellitus (N = 2815)
 Yes 2.67 1.13 6.35 1.52 0.56 4.09
 No Ref
Hypertension (N = 2815)
 Yes 8.78 4.72 16.33 9.17 4.44 18.94
 No Ref
Current smoking (N = 2815)
 Yes 1.26 0.66 2.39 0.10 0.45 2.24
 No Ref
Harmful alcohol consumption (N = 2815)
 Yes 1.00 0.58 1.72 0.90 0.44 1.85
 No Ref
Physical activity
(MET/Week)
(N = 2815)
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
BMI (Kg/m2) (N = 2815) 1.01 0.96 1.07 0.97 0.90 1.04
  1. Note: Age, physical activity and BMI are included as continuous variables in the model. COR refers to crude odds ratio, AOR refers to adjusted odds ratio, CI refers to confidence intervals, MET refers to metabolic equivalent of task, BMI refers to body mass index and kg refers to kilogram. History of self-reported cardiovascular events was the outcome variable, fruit and vegetable intake, socio-demographic (age, sex, education, ethnicity) and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, currently smoking, hypertension, BMI, harmful alcohol consumption, physical activity) were independent variable. aNo adjustment done in the COR model. bAll the independent variables such as socio-demographic (age, sex, education, ethnicity), cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, currently smoking, hypertension, BMI, harmful alcohol consumption, physical activity) and fruit and vegetable intake were controlled in the AOR model