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Table 2 The ambulatory electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography data before and after closure

From: Early changes in ambulatory electrocardiography after transcatheter closure in patients with atrial septal defect and factors affecting heart rate variability

  Group ASD (n = 154) Group PFO (n = 26) P0*
Before After p Value Before After p Value
HRV indices and HR
 SDNN, ms 98.70 ± 24.08 104.78 ± 25.67 < 0.001 134.08 ± 33.80 104.46 ± 22.64 < 0.001 < 0.001
 SDANN, ms 84.85 ± 22.04 92.42 ± 25.11 < 0.001 115.62 ± 31.87 92.73 ± 22.57 < 0.001 < 0.001
 RMSSD, ms 27.83 ± 10.81 26.21 ± 10.73 0.082 34.23 ± 11.80 23.77 ± 10.97 < 0.001 0.006
 PNN50, % 8.08 ± 7.74 7.33 ± 7.35 0.262 13.10 ± 9.89 5.84 ± 7.27 < 0.001 0.004
 HR, bpm 76.81 ± 9.10 75.14 ± 9.06 0.006 75.58 ± 10.78 81.38 ± 8.17 0.001 0.537
TTE parameters
 LAD, mm 32.43 ± 4.32 31.92 ± 4.54 0.088 31.00 ± 3.49 29.58 ± 4.49 0.054 0.124
 LVESD, mm 27.95 ± 2.98 28.20 ± 2.72 0.199 29.54 ± 2.21 28.63 ± 2.50 0.055 0.013
 LVEDD, mm 42.81 ± 4.03 43.63 ± 3.66 0.001 45.38 ± 3.70 44.13 ± 3.63 0.042 0.004
 RAD, mm 38.13 ± 5.71 34.80 ± 4.58 < 0.001 29.75 ± 3.01 28.88 ± 3.22 0.131 < 0.001
 RVD, mm 38.92 ± 5.01 35.72 ± 4.70 < 0.001 29.17 ± 3.32 29.21 ± 3.59 0.957 < 0.001
 LVEF, % 64.12 ± 4.06 65.00 ± 2.92 0.019 64.15 ± 2.00 64.53 ± 4.04 0.697 0.971
  1. *P0: p-values between the values prior to the procedure in the patient and control groups; P value threshold of 0.017 was used after Bonferroni correction (0.05*(1/3));
  2. P value threshold of 0.017 was used after Bonferroni correction (0.05*(1/3)); SDNN the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) intervals, SDANN the standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all 5 min segments of the entire recording, RMSSD the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, pNN50 the percentage of adjacent NN intervals that differ from each other by more than 50 msm, HR heart rate, LAD left atrium diameter, LVESD left ventricular end systolic diameter, LVEDD left ventricular end diastolic diameter, RAD right atrium diameter, RVD right ventricular diameter, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction