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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and cardiovascular parameters in sildenafil and control group

From: Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and combined pre- and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension: a randomized open-label pilot study

  Sildenafil (n = 30) Control (n = 20) Total study population (n = 50)
Age, y 71 ± 7 71 ± 8 71 ± 7
Men, n (%) 17 (57) 7 (35) 24 (48)
NYHA II/III, n (%) 20/10 (67/33) 13/7 (65/35) 33/17 (66/34)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 130 ± 14 127 ± 12 129 ± 13
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 80 ± 11 76 ± 10 78 ± 11
Heart rate, bpm 63 ± 8 63 ± 7 63 ± 7
Body mass index, kg/m2 30 ± 6 29 ± 4 30 ± 5
Overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), n (%) 26 (87) 18 (90) 44 (88)
Hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg), n (%) 30 (100) 20 (100) 50 (100)
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, n (%) 10 (33) 5 (25) 15 (30)
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 15 (50) 7 (35) 22 (44)
 Previous myocardial infarction, n (%) 9 (30) 4 (20) 13 (26)
 Myocardial revascularization, n (%) 11 (37) 4 (20) 15 (30)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 10 (33) 4 (20) 14 (28)
Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 26 (87) 14 (70) 40 (80)
Drug therapy:
 ACEI/ARB, n (%) 30 (100) 20 (100) 50 (100)
 β-Blockers, n (%) 21 (70) 18 (90) 39 (78)
 Diuretics, n (%) 28 (93) 19 (95) 47 (94)
  Thiazide diuretics, n (%) 2 (7) 2 (10) 4 (8)
  Loop diuretics, n (%) 26 (87) 17 (85) 34 (86)
  Spironolactone, n (%) 6 (20) 2 (10) 8 (16)
 Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 15 (50) 7 (35) 22 (44)
 Statins, n (%) 26 (87) 18 (90) 44 (88)
LV ejection fraction, % 60 ± 5 61 ± 6 61 ± 5
LV hypertrophy, n (%) 20 (67) 15 (75) 35 (70)
PA systolic pressure, mm Hg 58.6 ± 14.9 55.5 ± 13.5 57.3 ± 14.3
Increased RA pressure, n (%) 26 (87) 14 (70) 40 (80)
RV systolic dysfunction, n (%) 22 (73) 10 (50) 32 (64)
PVR, Wood units 3.33 ± 0.64 3.19 ± 0.47 3.27 ± 0.58
TPG, mm Hg 23.3 ± 7.7 22.1 ± 8.8 22.8 ± 8.1
Mitral Е/e′ ratio 14.2 ± 4.2 12.6 ± 3.7 13.6 ± 4.0
LV diastolic dysfunction, grade II/III, n (%) 19/11 (64/36) 14/6 (70/30) 33/17 (66/34)
NT-proBNP, pg/mL 391 (190—582) 468 (205—720) 408 (194—631)
  1. NYHA New York Heart Association, ACEI Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker, LV Left ventricular, PA Pulmonary artery, RA Right atrial, RV Right ventricular, PVR Pulmonary vascular resistance, TPG Transpulmonary gradient, Е Early inflow velocity, e′ annulus relaxation velocity, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide
  2. NS for all parameters