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Table 1 General characteristics

From: Procedural sedation for direct current cardioversion: a feasibility study between two management strategies in the emergency department

Variable Total population (n = 69) Propofol group (n = 34) Midazolam group (n = 35) P-value
Male gender (n, %) 45 (65.2) 20 (58.8) 25 (71.4) .272
Age (years) 66.5 ± 12.0 67.9 ± 12.6 65.1 ± 11.4 .322
BMI (kg/m2) 28.5 ± 5.2 28.0 ± 3.6 29.1 ± 6.1 .713
Hypertension (n, %) 49 (71.0) 26 (76.5) 23 (65.7) .325
Diabetes (n, %) 7 (10.1) 4 (11.8) 3 (8.6) .660
Dyslipidaemia (n, %) 28 (40.6) 13 (38.2) 15 (42.9) .696
Smoking habit (n, %) 16 (23.2) 7 (20.6) 9 (25.7) .614
COPD (n, %) 14 (20.3) 7 (20.6) 7 (20.0) .321
CRI (n, %) 4 (5.8) 3 (8.8) 1 (2.9) .289
Thyroid disorders (n, %) 13 (18.8) 6 (17.6) 7 (20.0) .319
CHA2DS2-VASc score (median, 1st-3rd) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–3) 2 (1–3) .649
Haemoglobin (g/dl) 13.6 ± 3.3 13.5 ± 3.1 13.7 ± 3.7 .806
eGFR (ml/min) 85.7 ± 33.6 83.4 ± 37.3 88.0 ± 29.7 .581
Sodium (mEq/l) 134.2 ± 29.1 135.3 ± 24.4 133.0 ± 33.4 .749
Potassium (mEq/l) 4.0 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 0.9 3.9 ± 1.0 .696
BNP (pg/ml) 257.2 ± 86.4 245.4 ± 71.5 269.2 ± 99.9 .276
Type of heart disease:
 Hypertensive 40 (58.0) 19 (55.9) 21 (60.0) .729
 Ischemic 11 (15.9) 7 (20.6) 4 (11.4) .298
 Valvular 5 (7.2) 3 (8.8) 2 (5.7) .618
 Idiopathic dilatative 2 (2.9) 1 (2.9) 1 (2.8) .486
 Lone AF 11 (15.9) 4 (11.8) 7 (20.0) .350
Echographic characteristics:
 LAD (mm) 29.6 ± 18.1 30.4 ± 19.0 29.0 ± 17.3 .749
 LVEDD (mm) 49.2 ± 8.7 49.3 ± 7.7 49.2 ± 9.8 .965
 LVESD (mm) 30.1 ± 6.4 30.4 ± 6.4 31.6 ± 6.4 .487
 LVEF (%) 44.4 ± 15.0 44.7 ± 14.9 44.2 ± 15.4 .930
AAD at enrolment:
 Flecainide (n, %) 15 (22.7) 7 (21.9) 8 (23.5) .873
 Propafenone (n, %) 4 (6.1) 2 (6.2) 2 (5.8) .933
 Amiodarone (n, %) 5 (7.6) 3 (9.4) 2 (5.9) .592
 β-blockers (n, %) 31 (47.0) 15 (46.9) 16 (47.1) .988
 CCBs (n, %) 18 (27.3) 10 (31.3) 8 (23.5) .482
Anti-platelet (n, %) 15 (21.7) 7 (20.6) 8 (25.0) .669
Anticoagulant (n, %) 52 (75.4) 26 (76.5) 26 (74.3) .869
Previous AF episodes (median, 1st-3rd) 2 (1–3) 2 (0–3) 2 (1–3) .353
Previous DCC (median, 1st-3rd) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–1) .267
Previous PC (median, 1st-3rd) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) .844
  1. AAD Anti-arrhythmic drug, AF Atrial fibrillation, BMI Body mass index, BNP Brain natriuretic peptide, CCB Calcium channel blocker, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRI Chronic renal impairment, DCC Direct-current cardioversion, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, LAD Left atrial diameter, LVEDD Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVESD Left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, PC Pharmacological cardioversion