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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patients

From: Association between inflammation and skeletal muscle proteolysis, skeletal mass and strength in elderly heart failure patients and their prognostic implications

Characteristic Control
(n = 83)
Heart failure
(n = 78)
P-value
Age (years) 72 ± 5 73 ± 8 0.21
Female 24 (29) 28 (36) 0.15
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.3 ± 3.5 22.8 ± 4.2 0.42
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123 ± 17 125 ± 23 0.69
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 13 76 ± 14 0.51
Cardiac rhythm    0.40
 Sinus rhythm 35 (42) 23 (29)  
 Paroxysmal/persistent AF 48 (58) 55 (71)  
Medical comorbidities
 Coronary artery disease 6 (7) 6 (8) 0.86
 Valvular disease 1 (1) 10 (13) < 0.001
 Hypertension 30 (36) 38 (49) 0.11
 Diabetes 10 (12) 16 (21) 0.14
 Dyslipidemia 17 (20) 14 (18) 0.68
 TIA/Stroke 4 (5) 11 (14) < 0.05
Laboratory data
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 13.8 ± 11.7 12.7 ± 2.0 < 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.83 ± 0.19 0.88 ± 0.39 0.36
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 68 ± 17 66 ± 18 0.39
 CRP (mg/dL) 0.16 ± 0.26 0.70 ± 1.16 < 0.001
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 3.30 ± 3.71 8.08 ± 7.05 < 0.001
 Creatine kinase (IU/L) 91 ± 33 92 ± 50 0.87
 BNP (pg/mL) 41 ± 28 328 ± 249 < 0.001
 LVEF (%) 56 ± 11 45 ± 16 < 0.001
 LAD (mm) 35 ± 5.8 40 ± 7.4 < 0.001
Medications
 β-Blocker 59 (71) 75 (96) < 0.001
 ACE-I/ARB 29 (35) 66 (85) < 0.001
 Loop diuretics 4 (5) 31 (40) < 0.001
 Aldosterone blocker 5 (6) 18 (23) < 0.01
 Calcium blocker 23 (28) 19 (24) 0.56
 Statin 16 (19) 27 (35) < 0.05
 Aspirin 10 (12) 21 (27) 0.16
 Anticoagulant 48 (58) 56 (72) 0.09
  1. AF Atrial fibrillation, TIA Transient ischemic attack, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, CRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6 Interleukin 6, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, LAD Left atrial dimension, ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker. Data represent the number, frequency, or means±SD