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Table 1 Characteristics of the RCTs included in the meta-analysis

From: Assessing the risk of angiotensin receptor blockers on major cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Trial name, year publicationPopulationSettingInterventionControlFollow up (in months)Male (%)Mean / median age (years)Mean BMI (kg/m2)Mean cholesterol (mg/dL)Mean LDL (mg/dL)Mean HDL (mg/dL)Mean triglyceride (mg/dL)Non-smoker (%)Hypertension (%)Heart failure (%)Diabetes mellitus (%)Ischaemic / coronary artery disease (%)Chronic kidney disease (%)
4C (2016) [16]Patients with IHD after coronary stent implantation39 centres in JapanCandesartanStandard care without ARB36736924NR111491408373835100NR
ACTIVE I (2011) [17]Patients with atrial fibrillation600 centres worldwideIrbesartanPlacebo54617029NRNRNRNR50883220NRNR
CARP (2011) [18]Patients that received a coronary stent5 centres in Hiroshima, JapanValsartanNon-ARB therapy48796524NRNRNRNR5075NR4310030
CASE-J (2008) [19]Patients with high-risk hypertension527 physicians from JapanCandesartanAmlodipine41556425NRNRNRNR791000434324
CHARM-Added (2003) [20]Patients with CHF and LVEF< 40618 centres in 26 countriesCandesartanPlacebo41796428NRNRNRNR83481003068NR
CHARM-Alternative (2003) [7]Patients with symptomatic CHF and LVEF< 40%618 centres in 26 countriesCandesartanPlacebo34686728NRNRNRNR86501002762NR
CHARM-Preserved (2003) [21]Patients with HF and LVEF> 40618 centres in 26 countriesCandesartanPlacebo37606729NRNRNRNR87641002856NR
Cice et al. (2010) [22]Patients with CHF and in haemodialysis30 clinics in ItalyTelmisartanPlacebo369063NRNRNRNRNR61NR1002957100
DETAIL (2004) [23]Patients with diabetes mellitus and nephropathy39 centres in northern EuropeTelmisartanEnalapril6073613122313748207371000100NR100
DIRECT-Prevent 1 (2008) [15]Patients with type 1 diabetes a no retinopathy309 centres worldwideCandesartanPlacebo56563024184NR66NR74NRNR100NR0
DIRECT-Protect 1 (2008) [15]Patients with type 1 diabetes and retinopathy309 centres worldwideCandesartanPlacebo56573225186NR66NR74NRNR100NR0
DIRECT-Protect 2 (2008) [24]Patients with type 2 diabetes and retinopathy309 centres worldwideCandesartanPlacebo56505729205NRNRNR7362NR10050
E-COST (2005) [25]Patients with hypertensionCentres in Saitama, JapanCandesartanNon-ARB therapy3748NRNRNRNRNRNRNR100000NR
E-COST-R (2005) [26]Patients with hypertension and mild renal impairmentCentres in Saitama, JapanCandesartanNon-ARB therapy375967NR181NRNRNRNR100006100
ELITE (1997) [27]Patients with CHF and LVEF< 40%125 centres in the USA, Europe, and South AmericaLosartanCaptopril136774NRNRNRNRNR885710025507
ELITE II (2000) [28]Patients with CHF and LVEF< 40%289 centres in 46 countriesLosartanCaptopril236971NRNRNRNRNRNR491002479NR
GISSI-AF (2009) [29]Patients with history of atrial fibrillation100 centres in ItalyValsartanPlacebo12626828NRNRNRNR8185815123
HIJ-CREATE (2009) [30]Patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension14 centres in JapanCandesartanNon-ARB therapy50806625193NR45128641002138100NR
HOPE-3 (2016) [31]Patients with intermediate cardiovascular risk228 centres in 21 countriesCandesartan + hydrochlorothiazidePlacebo6754662720112845128723805.800
IDNT (2003) [32]Patients with diabetes mellitus and nephropathyCentres in the North America, Europe, Latin America, South East Asia, and OceaniaIrbesartanAmlodipine or placeboa31645931NRNRNRNRNR100010028100
I-PRESERVE (2008) [33]Patients with CHF and LVEF > 45%Centres in 25 countriesIrbesartanPlacebo50407230NRNRNRNRNR891002800
IRMA-2 (2001) [34]Patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and micro-albuminuria96 centres worldwideIrbesartanbPlacebo246958302241404418081100NR10060
J-RHYTHM II (2011) [35]Patients with hypertension and atrial fibrillation48 centres in JapanCandesartanAmlodipine126966NRNRNRNRNRNR100391NR
Kondo et al. (2003) [36]Patients with history of coronary interventionOgaki Municipal Hospital in JapanStandard care + CandesartanStandard care without candesartan24766524187114491267644225100NR
KYOTO HEART (2009) [37]Patients with uncontrolled hypertension31 centres from Kyoto, JapanValsartanNon-ARB therapy39576639NR122551497810072723NR
LIFE (2002) [38]Patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy830 centres from the USA, the UK, and ScandinaviaLosartanAtenolol58466728232NR58NR8410001316NR
MOSES (2005) [39]High-risk hypertensive patientsCentres in Germany and AustriaEprosartanNitredipine45546828NRNRNRNRNR1002637265.4
NAVIGATOR (2010) [40]Patients with impaired glucose tolerance806 centres in 40 countriesValsartanPlacebo60496431210127501518978NR491211
OCTOPUS (2013) [41]Patients with hypertension and in haemodialysis66 dialysis centres in Okinawa, JapanOlmesartanNon-ARB therapy60626024155NRNR15565100NR327100
ONTARGET (2008) [42]Patients with coronary, peripheral, cerebrovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage733 centres in 40 countriesTelmisartanRamipril or ramipril + telmisartanc5677662819011250151366903775NR
OPTIMAAL (2002) [43]Patients with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure329 centres in 7 European countriesLosartanCaptopril3569672721213045168NR36617100NR
ORIENT (2011) [44]Patients with diabetes mellitus with proteinuriaCentres in Japan and Hong KongOlmesartanPlacebo38695925208NRNRNR7510041005100
PRoFESS (2008) [45]Patients with a recent ischaemic stroke695 centres in 35 countriesTelmisartanPlacebo30646627NRNRNRNR4374328NRNR
RENAAL (2001) [46]Patients with diabetes and nephropathy250 centres in 28 countriesLosartanPlacebo41636030228142452198293010011100
ROAD (2007) [47]Patients with proteinuria and chronic renal insufficiencyNanfang Hospital Renal Division in ChinaLosartanBenazepril4463502397NRNR177NR63000100
SCAST (2011) [48]Patients with acute stroke146 centres in EuropeCandesartanPlacebo65871NRNRNRNRNRNR70NR16NRNR
SCOPE (2003) [49]Patients with mild to moderate elevated blood pressure527 centres in EuropeCandesartanPlacebo45367627239NRNRNR9152NR124NR
SUPPORT (2015) [50]Patients with hypertension and CHF17 centres in Tohoku, JapanOlmesartanNon-ARB therapy53756625NR108NRNRNR10010050470
Suzuki et al. (2008) [51]Patients with kidney failure treated with haemodialysis5 dialysis centres in Saitama, JapanLosartan, candesartan, or valsartanNon-ARB therapy36596021157NRNRNR789316522100
Takahashi et al. (2006) [52]Patients with kidney failure treated with haemodialysisEnshu General Hospital in JapanCandesartanNothing19586120NRNRNRNRNR810330100
TRANSCEND (2008) [53]Patients with coronary, peripheral, cerebrovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage, and intolerant to ACE inhibitors630 centres in 40 countriesTelmisartanPlacebo5657672819711749158477603674NR
T-VENTURE (2009) [54]Patients with acute myocardial infarction4 centres in JapanValsartanACE inhibitor therapy68363NRNRNRNRNR4057034100NR
Val-HeFT (2001) [55]Patients with heart failure302 centres in 16 countriesValsartanPlacebo238063NRNRNRNRNRNRNR1002557NR
VALIANT (2003) [56]Patients with recent myocardial infarction and LVEF < 35%931 centres in 24 countriesValsartanCaptoprild25786527NRNRNRNRNR561523100NR
VALUE (2004) [6]Patients with hypertension and high risk of cardiac eventCentres in 31 countriesValsartanAmlodipine50586729NRNRNRNRNR936NR45NR
  1. ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blockers, CHF Congestive heart failure, IHD Ischaemic heart disease, LVEF Left-ventricular ejection fraction, NR Not reported
  2. aIDNT (2003): Two control groups, placebo group was excluded
  3. bIRMA-2 (2001): Two intervention groups, irbesartan 150 mg daily and irbesartan 300 mg daily were combined
  4. cONTARGET (2008): Three intervention groups, ramipril + telmisartan group was excluded
  5. dVALIANT (2003) Three intervention groups, valsartan + captopril group was excluded