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Table 7 Objectives, study population, setting, type of study, and study endpoints as reported in studies with similar rates between males and females. Studies reported by primary author in alphabetical order

From: Readmission rates following heart failure: a scoping review of sex and gender based considerations

Primary Author (year) Objectives Setting (geographical location, recruitment period) Study Design Study Endpoints
Ahmed (2014) [57] Examined the impact of gender on a wide variety of major natural history endpoints in a propensity matched population of ambulatory chronic HF patients in which men and women were well balanced on all measured baseline covariates 302 clinical centers across the United States (186 centers) and Canada (116 centers) between January 1991 and August 1993. Retrospective observational Mortality, hospitalizations (all cause, cardiovascular causes and HF)
Bradford (2016) [32] To evaluate the diagnosis and timing and to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with 30 day readmissions among heart failure patients. Acute care hospitals (San Diego, US, October 2009 to November, 2014) Retrospective 30-day Readmissions
Chang (2014) [48] To study sex differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes among multi-ethnic Southeast Asian patients with hospitalized heart failure Hospitals in the Southeast Asian nation of Singapore, January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 Prospective Length of stay, in hospital mortality and rehospitalisation
Chun (2012) [35] Examined a patient cohort discharged after being newly hospitalized for HF and followed them over their lifetime for all cardiac and noncardiac hospitalizations that occurred until death. Examined patterns of hospitalization and recurrent cardiovascular events and the association of sex, presence of HFrEF versus HFpEF, and ischemic versus nonischemic etiology on hospitalizations Hospitals (Ontario, Canada, April 1999 to March 2001) Retrospective Recurrent hospitalizations, cardiovascular events, and survival
Eastwood (2014) [33] To identify factors associated with risk of all-cause and HF-specific readmissions within 7 and 30 days of discharge Acute care hospital in Alberta from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2012 Retrospective 7-and 30-day readmission for all causes, 7-and 30-day readmission for HF
Gevaert (2014) [47] To compare the incidence and treatment of atrial fibrillation on admission between men and women admitted with acute heart failure 2 Belgian hospitals, Nov 2006 to May 2012; Patients included in the prospective BIO-HF registry (evaluates all patients admitted with the New York Heart Association class 3–4) Prospective design One-year all-cause mortality or readmission for HF. Secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and restoration of sinus rhythm at discharge
Jenghua (2011) [36] To determine early readmission rate after discharge among patients with principal diagnosis of CHF and (2) identify predictors of readmission within 30 days after discharge for this group of patients Tertiary care hospital in a large metropolitan area of Phitsanulok Province, Thailand Retrospective Rate of readmission after discharge; predictors of readmission
Lee (2004) [37] To evaluate the effect of gender on the risk of all-cause rehospitalization and that specific to heart failure in a diverse contemporary cohort of adults who had been hospitalized with HF 16 Kaiser Permanente of Northern California facilities (July 1, 1999 to June 302,000) Retrospective cohort Any rehospitalisation and readmission due specifically to heart failure
Mullens (2008) [54] To investigate whether there is gender-specific differences in clinical presentation, response to intensive medical therapy, and outcomes in patients admitted with advanced decompensated heart failure. Dedicated heart failure intensive care unit in clinic (USA, 2000 to 2006) Retrospective All-cause mortality, all-cause mortality or cardiac transplantation and first readmission for heart failure after discharge
Nieminen (2008) [53] To evaluate the gender differences in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure in the EuroHeart Failure Survey II 133 Hospitals: university hospitals 47, 49% community or district hospitals, 4% private clinics (30 European countries, October 21st 2004 to August 31st 2005) Prospective Gender differences in prescription of HF medication; rehospitalizations and one-year mortality
Ogah (2015) [44] To evaluate the sex differences in acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa 12 Cardiology units (9 sub-Saharan African countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan and Uganda, July 12,007 to June 302,010) Prospective Length of hospital stay, mortality rates, and all-cause re-admission
Opasich (2004) [41] To identify differences between sexes in the clinical profile, use of resources, management and outcome in a large population of ‘real world’ patients with heart failure 167 Cardiology (CARD) and 250 internal medicine (MED) departments (Italy, February 14, 2000 to February 25, 2000) Retrospective Number of cardiovascular procedures and diagnostic, and pharmacological therapy, in-hospital mortality
Otero-Ravina (2009) [56] Characterization of current morbidity and mortality among heart failure in Galicia together with their main determinants Eight geographical areas of Galicia, year 2006 Prospective Survival rates
Sajeev (2017) [45] Study the demographical and clinico-pathological characteristics of patients presenting with heart failure and evaluate the 1 year outcomes and to identify risk predictors if any A tertiary care centre (South India, April 2013–September 2014) Prospective Mortality and/or re-hospitalization due to HF
Schwarz (2003) [55] To evaluate whether severity of cardiac illness, cognitive functioning, and functional health of older adults with heart failure (HF) and psychosocial factors related to caregiving are predictive of hospital readmissions for those with HF 2 Community hospitals (Ohio, US) Prospective 3-month re-admission
Sheppard (2005) [34] To explore gender differences in therapy, resource utilization, and clinical outcomes in patients who had CHF Quebec hospital summary database linked to provincial physician and drug claims databases, January 1998 and December 2002 Retrospective Procedure, medical therapy and re-hospitalizations, emergency room visits
Tarantini (2002) [51] Evaluate the clinical characteristics, 1-year prognosis and therapeutic approach of heart failure with a preserved left ventricular systolic function in a large multicenter registry of patients referred to specialized heart failure clinics 133 Centers of the ANMCO working group on heart failure, March1995 to January 1999 Prospective Use of cardiovascular medications, hospitalizations (all-cause for cardiovascular events and for worsening CHF)
Zsilinskza (2016) [52] Evaluate sex differences in patients with HFpEF that presented to the ED with acute HF, regarding presentation, treatments, and outcomes. 83 Hospitals (United States, January 2004 to September 2005) Retrospective Emergency department therapies and management, hospital length of stay, in-hospital mortality, post-discharge outcomes
  1. ANMCO Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri (National Association of Hospital Doctors Cardiologists), N.R None reported, HFpEF Heart failure preserved ejection faction, ED Emergency department, EF Ejection Faction, AHF Acute heart failure, HF Heart failure, CHF Congestive heart failure, ICD International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems