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Table 6 Studies reporting males with significantly higher in all cause re-admissions, death and/or hospital readmission ratios. Heart failure readmission, cardiovascular readmission and mortality/even free survival hazard ratios are also reported. Studies reported by primary author and year of publication and sorted alphabetically

From: Readmission rates following heart failure: a scoping review of sex and gender based considerations

Primary Author (year) Sample Size n (%) Mean Age (years) Type of Reporting by Sex1 Time to Event (months) Heart Failure Readmission Hazard Ratio Death and/or Hospital Readmission Ratio Other Significance
Alla (2007) [49] F:1517 LVD, 407 PEF
M: 5273 LVD, 581 PEF
F: 65 ± 12LVD, 69 ± 11PEF; M: 63 ± 11 LVD, 66 ± 9.7 a,b,c 35 Adjusted men vs. women 1.17 (1.06–1.29)   Mortality: Adjusted men vs. women 1.47 (1.33–1.63) All-Cause: Adjusted men vs. women 1.18 (1.11–1.27); Cardiovascular Readmission: Adjusted men vs. women 1.12 (1.04–1.21); When ejection fraction was reduced, 1.19 HR (1.07–1.33) but not preserved HR 0.90: 0.67–1.22 Males, All Cause and lower survival
Blackledge (2003) [31] F:2913 (50); M:2876 (50) 41–107 b, c n.r   0.92 (0.85–0.98) Mortality: 0.88 (0.82–0.96) Males, Death and/or Hospital readmission and lower survival
Goncalves (2008) [39] F(54.3); preserved LVSF F(72.9),M(26 (27.1); depressed LVSF F (45), M (113, 54.3) 72.7 (1.6); preserved LVSF 73.3 ± 11.2 vs. depressed LVSF 70.7 ± 12.7, p = 0.13 b, c 6   M preserved LVSF 2.04 (1.08–3.84);
M Depressed LVSF 0.64 (0.42–0.96)
  Males with preserved and depressed LVSF, Death and/or hospital readmission
Howlett (2009) [28] F:364(37), M:620 (63) 68 ± 13 b,c 12   1.21 (1.06–1.37)   Males, death and/or hospital readmission
Islam (2013) [58] F:313 (49.7), M:317 (50.3) 65–74:22.4
75–84:47.6
85+:30.0
b, c n.r.    All Cause Readmission: 1.22 (1.03–1.46) Males, All Cause
Ieva (2015) [50] F:8114 (53.04), M:7184 (46.96) F:79.6(11.4), M:71.5 (12.88) a, b n.r.    n.r. Males
Madigan (2012) [29] F:45429 (61)   c 1    All Cause Readmission: 1.079 (1.047, 1.112) Males, All Cause
Nieminen (2008) [53] 3580, F: 1384 (29); M:2916(61) F: 73.1 ± 12.0, p < 0.001; M: 67.8 ± 12.4 a,b,c 3,12    Mortality: 1.04 (0.79–1.37); All-Cause Readmission: Age-adjusted, 0.84 (0.74–0.96); Event-free survival: Death, myocardial infarction or stroke, 10.1: 9.7; 0.95 (0.76–1.20) Males, All Cause
Ogah (2014) [40] F: 124(47), M 138 (53); rehospitalized m 21 (65.6); not hospitalized m 117 (50.9) Readmitted 61.7 ± 14.0 vs non readmitted 56.1 ± 15.4, p = 0.026 b, c 1, 6    All-Cause Readmission: F: 11(8.9%); M: 21(15.2%); OR 0.54 (0.25–1.18); Adjusted for women 0.33(0.14–0.79) Males, All Cause
Omersa (2016) [27] F: 21711 (59); M: 15113(41) F: 65–74:19%, 75–84:48%, 85+:33%; M:65–74:36,75–84:48%;85+:16% c n.r.    Mortality:
65–74: 0.808 (0.745–0.875)
75–84: 0.848 (0.807–0.891)
85+: 0.840 (0.785–0.898); All Cause Readmission:
65–74:0.872 (0.814–0.934)
75–84:0.869
(0.825–0.915)
85+:0.855 (0.784–0.931)
Males, and lower survival
Robertson (2012) [30] F:14557 (50); M: 14604 (50)   b,c n.r.    All-Cause Readmission: 0.93 (0.89–0.96) Males, All Cause
Sato (2015) [43] F: 122; M: 476 (79.6)   b,c 26    Cardiovascular Readmission: Multivariable male 1.851 HR (1.237–2.771) Males, Cardiovascular
  1. F Female, M Male; Male to Female ratio assumed unless specified. 1 a- Time to event curves; b - Baseline and Procedural characteristics; c - All relevant outcomes (crude numbers, events, patients, hazard ratios with 95% CI); LVD Left Ventricular Dysfunction, PEF Preserved Ejection Fraction, LVSF Left Ventricular Systolic Function, n.r. Not reported