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Table 5 Objectives, study population, setting, design and endpoints as reported in studies demonstrating a higher risk for readmission in men. Studies are listed by primary author in alphabetical order

From: Readmission rates following heart failure: a scoping review of sex and gender based considerations

Primary Author (year) Objectives Study Population (interventions) Study Setting (geographical location, recruitment period) Study Design Study Endpoints
Alla (2007) [49] To investigate the association of sex with the risk of adverse events, especially hospitalization for heart failure. To evaluate the association between sex and the risk of mortality and hospitalization, not only for worsening heart failure but other causes, across the clinical syndrome of heart failure. Patients with clinical heart failure 302 clinical centers (United States and Canada, February 1991 to September 1993) Retrospective design All-cause mortality and hospitalization for worsening heart failure, and secondary end points included all-cause hospitalization and cardiovascular hospitalization.
Blackledge (2003) [31] To compare patterns of admission to hospital and prognosis in white and South Asian patients newly admitted with heart failure, and to evaluate the effect of personal characteristics and comorbidity on outcome Patients newly admitted with heart failure UK district health authority (April 1998 to March 2001) Historical cohort study Death from any cause (all cause survival) and all cause survival or emergency readmission for a cardiovascular event (event free survival)
Goncalves (2008) [39] To determine the prognostic value of left ventricular systolic function and identify prognostic indices in patients hospitalized due to HF with preserved and depressed LVSF Admitted due to decompensated HF 18 months between October 2002 and April 2004, admitted to the Internal Medicine Department Retrospective design Primary endpoint was all-cause death or readmission within 6 months
Howlett (2009) [28] To determine the effectiveness of HF clinics in reducing death or all-cause rehospitalization in a real-world population Patients with a diagnosis of heart failure 4 heart failure clinics (Nova Scotia, Canada, October 1997 to July 2000) Retrospective The primary end point – combined all-cause mortality and hospitalization at the one-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the one year total mortality and all-cause hospital readmission rate.
Islam (2013) [58] Examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with CHF who are 65 years of age or older and are and are not readmitted to hospital within 28 days of discharge from an index admission Older patients with CHF A large metropolitan public health service (Melbourne, Australia. June 2006 to June 2011) Retrospective Comparative cohort Hospital readmission within 28 days
Ieva (2015) [50] To demonstrate a flexible approach that is able to capture important features of disease progression, such as multiple ordered events and the competing risks of death and hospitalization Patients with heart failure Administrative database (Italy, 2000–2010) Retrospective design Hospital admissions and death
Madigan (2012) [29] To determine patient, home health care agency, and geographic (i.e., area variation) factors related to 30-day rehospitalization in a national population of home health care patients with heart failure, and to describe the extent to which rehospitalizations were potentially avoidable Home health care patients with heart failure All home care whose care was paid for by the traditional Medicare fee-for-service program (USA, 2005) Retrospective design 30-day rehospitalization rate
Nieminen (2008) [53] To evaluate the gender differences in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure in the EuroHeart Failure Survey II Patents with dyspnoea and verified heart failure 133 Hospitals: university hospitals 47, 49% community or district hospitals, 4% private clinics (30 European countries, October 21st 2004 to August 31st 2005) Prospective Gender differences in prescription of HF medication; rehospitalizations and one-year mortality
Ogah (2014) [40] Examine the rate and predictors of hospital readmission in patients discharged after an episode of heart failure Patients with heart failure Private / public primary and secondary health care facilities (Abeokuta, Nigeria, January 2009 to December 2010) Prospective Study Hospital readmission
Omersa (2016) [27] To analyze the readmissions during or following the first HF hospitalization in patients aged 65 years or over, and to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities and their prognostic implications in terms of mortality and readmission. Patients aged 65 years or over who had first heart failure hospitalization Hospitals (Slovenia, 2008–2012) Retrospective Observational All cause mortality and readmission within 30 days, and 1 year after discharge from first HF hospitalization
Robertson (2012) [30] To assess the typical profile, trajectory and resource use of a cohort of Australian patients with heart failure using linked population based, patient-level data Residents aged ≥45 years with a first (index) admission for heart failure Admitted Patient Data Collection (New South Wales, Australia, July 2000 to June 2007) Retrospective Cohort Study Registry Hospital readmission
Sato (2015) [43] To compare prognostic risk factors between older and younger chronic heart failure patients Patients admitted for treatment of worsening CHF Patients admitted to Fukushima Medical University Hospital, July 2006 and May 2012 Prospective Cardiac death (death as a result of heart failure and sudden cardiac death) or re-hospitalization as a result of worsening heart failure