Skip to main content

Table 4 Studies showing significantly higher rates of outcomes in women, presented alphabetically by primary author

From: Readmission rates following heart failure: a scoping review of sex and gender based considerations

Primary author (year) Sample Size n (%) Mean Age (years) Mean Length of Hospital Stay (days) Type of Reporting by Sex1 Time to Event (months), Heart Failure Readmission Rate Other Significance
Female Male
Arora (2017) [26] 301,892
F: n (49.4)
M: n (50.6)
73.4% ≥ 65 years 5.29 ± 0.01 b, c 1-month, 0.93 OR (0.90–0.96)   Female readmission without HF: 1.02 OR (1.00–1.05) Females
Gevaert (2014) [47] 957; F:435(44.5); M: 542 (55.5) F < 75 years (42.5) vs. (20.3) M, p = 0.005   b,c 12   Mortality and hospitalization:
Adj. OR for female gender:1.1 (0.65–1.86)
Prognosis women < 75 years of age: 7.17 OR (1.79–28.66)
Females, less than 75 years of age, prognosis
Howie-Esquivel (2007) [42] 72; M: 47 62 ± 18      34 were rehospitalized for cardiac reasons within 3 months. Women had a 2.5 times greater risk for rehospitalization than men. 52 days; 40 days non-Caucasian females; > 90 days in males Women had a 2.5 times greater risk for rehospitalization than men. Non white ethnicity and female gender incurred ≥2 times greater risk of cardiac rehospitalization
Jimenez-Navarro (2010) [38] Females, 1368 (29)
Males, 3351 (71)
Females 64 ± 12, p < 0.001
Males 70 ± 12
  a, b, c 40 ± 12, 60% not require readmission 77% not require readmission Cardiovascular event-free survival: F, 45%, M, 62% Females higher in heart failure readmission and lower cardiovascular event-free survival, P < 0.001
Macdonald (2008) [25] With Diabetes, 15,161
Females, 7805
Males, 7356
Females With Diabetes 73.8 ± 10.0
Males with Diabetes
70.0 ± 10.3
  a, b, c 1-month, Diabetic Crude Rate 7.1 (6.5–7.7)
1-month, Non Diabetic Crude Rate 5.2 (5.0–5.4)
8.4 (7.7–9.1)
6.8 (6.5–7.0)
Women younger than 65 at both 1 and 5 years have a greater risk for heart failure readmission or death associated with diabetes than in men younger than 65 years and women older than 75 years. Females < 75 years of age with diabetes
Without Diabetes, 101,395
Females, 53,578
Males, 47,817
Females without Diabetes 77.3 ± 11.5
Males without Diabetes 71.8 ± 12.4
12-month, Diabetic Crude Rate 38.0 (36.7–39.3) 38.9 (37.5–40.2)
12-month, Non Diabetic Crude Rate 29.1 (28.6–29.6) 31.2 (30.7–31.7)
60-Month, Diabetic Crude Rate 69.8 (68.3–71.3) 70.2 (68.7–71.7)
60-Month, Non Diabetic Crude Rate 57.6 (57.0–58.2) 58.8 (58.2–59.4)
Vader (2016) [46] F: 185 (24.9); M:559 (75.1) 69 (60–78) 6 b,c 1,2   0.74 (0.57–0.98) Male is lower in readmission or death
  1. 1a Time to event curves; b - Baseline and Procedural characteristics; c - All relevant outcomes (crude numbers, events, patients, hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI); Confidence Intervals: 95%; Adj. Adjusted, LVD Left ventricular dysfunction, PEF Preserved ejection fraction, HF Heart failure, M males, F Females. Ratios expressed males to females unless specified