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Table 3 Objectives, study population and setting, definition of heart failure as reported in studies reporting higher re-admission rates or composite outcome in women. Studies are listed in alphabetical order by primary author

From: Readmission rates following heart failure: a scoping review of sex and gender based considerations

Primary Author (year) Objectives Study Population (interventions) Study Setting (geographical location, recruitment period) Study Design Study Endpoints
Arora (2017) [26] To evaluate specific etiologies, trends and predictors of 30-day readmission in patients admitted with HF from one of the largest nationwide databases Patients with heart failure. Besides Medicare, also included Medicaid, private/health maintenance organization and self-pay patients. 2013; all-payer inpatient database in US Retrospective cohort design 30-day readmissions; with and without HF
Gevaert (2014) [47] To compare the incidence and treatment of atrial fibrillation on admission between men and women admitted with acute heart failure Patients included in the prospective BIO-HF registry (evaluate all patients admitted with the New York Heart Association class 3–4) 2 Belgian hospitals, Nov 2006 to May 2012; Patients included in the prospective BIO-HF registry (evaluates all patients admitted with the New York Heart Association class 3–4) Prospective design One-year all-cause mortality or readmission for HF. Secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and restoration of sinus rhythm at discharge
Howie-Esquivel (2007) [42] To determine whether demographic, clinical, or psychological variables conferred increased risk of rehospitalization in a multiethnic, hospitalized heart failure population 90 days after hospitalization for heart failure Patients with HF, English or Korean Large academic medical center in Northern California, data collected from July 2004 to April 2005 Prospective cohort study Quality of life, mean discharge brain natriuretic peptide; 6MWT distance, rehospitalizations
Jimenez-Navarro (2010) [38] To determine the influence of gender on the diagnostic and therapeutic management and long-term prognosis of patients with heart failure seen in specific heart failure clinics Patients with chronic heart failure. 21% patients were from community hospitals and 79% from the general hospitals. 62 Centers incl. 14 (22%) community hospitals and 48 (78%) general hospitals; 10 (16%) of the participating hospitals have a heart transplantation program.
8 (13% of the total) depend on an internal medicine service. Heart failure units or clinics (Spain, 2000 to 2003)
Retrospective observational multicenter study Mortality, admissions for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, valvular surgery, or heart transplant
Macdonald (2008) [25] To assess the association of diabetes with short and long-term outcomes in all patients hospitalized for the first time with heart failure in Scotland Individuals discharged from hospital with a diagnosis or heart failure according to history of diabetes and sex Hospitals (Scotland, 1986 to 2003) Retrospective cohort study Combined end point of death or HF readmission, also separately reported per males and females
Vader (2016) [46] Characterized the risk factors for post discharge readmission/death in subjects treated for acute heart failure Patients hospitalized with acute heart failure From 3 different trials Post hoc retrospective analysis Rehospitalization or death after discharge from the index hospitalization analyzed in a continuous fashion or in the intervals of 0–30 days or 31–60 days