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Table 2 Comparison of clinical and biochemical characteristics of participants with PAD

From: Peripheral arterial disease and its correlates in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicPAD Absent n (%)PAD present n (%)Odds ratio95% Confidence interval
Age ≥ 50 years*97 (78.9)50 (64.9)0.500.26–0.94
Female sex*44 (35.8)39 (50.6)1.841.04–3.29
Duration of DM > 5 years74 (60.2)38 (49.4)1.550.87–2.75
Presence of hypertension91 (74.0)49 (63.6)0.620.33–1.14
Previous MI or Stroke7 (5.7)5 (6.5)1.150.35–3.76
Previous tobacco smoking5 (4.1)4 (5.2)0.770.20–2.97
Medications
 Antihypertensives87 (70.7)47 (60.1)0.650.36–1.18
 Lipid lowering drugs16 (13.0)9 (11.7)0.890.37–2.12
 Antiplatelets28 (22.8)9 (11.7)0.470.20–1.06
 BMI ≥25 kg/m2*77 (62.6)63 (81.8)2.691.35–5.33
 Abnormal Waist Circumference82 (66.7)53 (68.8)1.100.60–2.03
 Poor glycaemic control101 (82.1)61 (79.2)0.830.40–1.70
 Elevated total cholesterol20 (16.3)13 (16.9)1.050.49–2.25
 Elevated LDL cholesterol56 (45.5)43 (55.8)1.500.85–2.60
 Low HDL cholesterol*89 (72.4)64 (85.3)2.221.05–4.72
 Elevated Triglycerides32 (26.0)21 (27.3)1.070.56–2.03
  1. *p < 0.05. DM Diabetes Mellitus, MI Myocardial infarction, PAD Peripheral arterial disease, BMI Body mass index, LDL Low density lipoprotein, HDL High density lipoprotein