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Table 6 Bivariable associations between standard dose rivaroxaban eligible patients’ characteristics on low or standard dose of rivaroxaban

From: Characteristics and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving direct oral anticoagulants in off-label doses

 Standard dose eligible that received low dose Rivaroxaban (n = 2551)Standard dose eligible that received standard dose Rivaroxaban (n = 9341)P valueBefore Matching Standardized DifferenceAfter Matching
(N = 2397 vs 2397)
Standardized Difference
Year  0.06  
 2010–20128.2%7.1% 0.04390.0031
 201317.9%17.1% 0.02040.0098
 201423.8%22.7% 0.02560.0248
 201521.4%22.7% 0.03120.0051
 2016–201728.7%30.4% 0.03790.0284
Region  0.12  
 Midwest15.1%14.4% 0.01780.1713
 Northeast1.1%1.3% 0.02290.1515
 South73.1%72.0% 0.02540.2038
 West10.8%12.3% 0.04760.0186
Age Category  < 0.0001  
 65–698.5%19.7% 0.32660
 70 to 7415.9%30.3% 0.34530
 75 to 7921.6%25.5% 0.09160
 80 to 8425.3%15.9% 0.23370
 85 to 8918.8%6.9% 0.36220
 90 or over9.8%1.7% 0.35440
Sex  < 0.0001  
 Female58.7%43.7% 0.30440
 Male41.3%56.3%   
Race Category  < 0.0001  
 White86.2%86.8% 0.01640
 Black7.3%6.9% 0.01440
 Hispanic2.4%1.3% 0.08130
 Asian1.1%0.8% 0.03040
 Other3.0%4.2% 0.0650
 Smoker21.1%23.0%0.050.0440.003
Weight Category (based on ICD-9/ICD-10 codes for BMI)  < 0.0001  
 Under2.9%1.4% 0.10380.0682
 Healthy or Overweight20.1%13.6% 0.17370.2328
 Obese or Severe Obese22.1%29.4% 0.16840.0561
 Others55.0%55.6% 0.01260.2406
Comorbid Conditions
 Prior Stroke26.9%21.3%< 0.0010.12950
 Prior major bleeding25.2%22.2%0.0010.0710
 Diabetes43.4%43.8%0.760.00690.1063
 Prior AMI7.0%5.3%0.0010.07010
 Liver Disease2.4%2.9%0.140.03370.0139
 Heart Failure27.0%21.3%< 0.0010.13390
 Hypertension91.2%90.8%0.570.01280.0474
 Cardiomyopathy43.5%38.3%< 0.0010.10630.1134
 Pulmonary Circulatory dis13.9%9.8%< 0.0010.12770.0414
 COPD33.0%29.1%< 0.0010.08460.0972
 Prior blood transfusion3.7%1.8%< 0.0010.11730.0855
 Revascularization14.7%13.0%0.020.04950.08
 Implantable Devices14.1%11.6%< 0.0010.07660.0553
 Valve Disease38.1%35.7%0.020.0510.0347
Concurrent Drugs (+/− 90 days of initiating DOAC)
 SSRI/SNRI33.3%27.4%< 0.0010.12890.0682
 Strong and moderate p-gp inhibitors15.7%16.1%0.670.00960
 Warfarin13.2%14.6%0.080.03910.1199
 Pgp inducers19.5%15.8%< 0.0010.0970
 Strong p-gp and cyp3a4 dual inhibitors17.3%14.8%0.0020.0690.0232
 P-gp and cyp3a4 inducers19.5%15.8%< 0.0010.0970
 Ace inhibitors62.4%62.1%0.770.00660.006
 Angiotensin receptor blockers33.8%33.8%0.980.00050.0222
 Beta blockers85.7%85.4%0.740.00750.042
 Calcium channel blockers59.6%57.3%0.030.04750.0179
 Digoxin23.4%19.8%<.0010.08920.0403
 Proton pump inhibitors56.2%49.5%< 0.0010.13560.0753
 NSAIDS53.2%48.7%< 0.0010.0910.133
 Antiplatelets27.9%22.5%< 0.0010.12290.0785
 Insulin8.5%8.2%0.540.01360.0247
 Statins75.4%75.9%0.60.01140.0608
Renal Disease
 None or mild100.0%100.0%  Not available due to perfect match
Moderate (GFR 30–60 ml/min/1.73 m2)     
Severe
(GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2)
     
  1. Abbreviations: ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme, AMI Acute myocardial infarction, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICD International classification of diseases, NSAIDS Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, P-GP P-glycoprotein, CYP Cytochrome