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Table 4 Bivariable associations between standard dose dabigatran eligible patients’ characteristics on low or standard dose of dabigatran

From: Characteristics and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving direct oral anticoagulants in off-label doses

 Standard dose eligible that received low dose Dabigatran (n = 1013)Standard dose eligible that received standard dose Dabigatran (n = 5621)P valueBefore Matching
Standardized Difference
After Matching (N = 1001 vs 1001)
Standardized Difference
Year  < 0.001  
 2010–1250.0%55.7% 0.1160.198
 201318.6%13.6% 0.1370.174
 201411.6%11.4% 0.0080.032
 201510.9%10.1% 0.0260.047
 2016–179.0%9.3% 0.0090.040
Region  0.8  
 Midwest12.3%12.9% 0.0170.024
 Northeast1.7%1.5% 0.0180.016
 South73.7%74.3% 0.0120.009
 West12.2%11.4% 0.0270.006
Age Category  < 0.001  
 65–696.7%18.7% 0.3650
 70 to 7412.5%27.3% 0.37550
 75 to 7919.0%24.9% 0.1430
 80 to 8426.4%17.9% 0.2060
 85 to 8918.5%6.9% 0.3510
 90 or over17.0%4.4% 0.4150
Sex  < 0.001  
 Female55.6%46.8% 0.1760
 Male44.4%53.2%   
Race Category  < 0.001  
 White84.0%87.9% 0.1130
 Black10.1%6.6% 0.1260
 Hispanic2.5%1.6% 0.0590
 Asian1.2%0.6% 0.0660
 Other2.3%3.3% 0.0600
 Smoker15.0%16.8%0.150.0490.037
Weight Category (based on ICD-9/ ICD-10 codes for BMI)  0.003  
 Under Weight1.1%0.6% 0.0570.031
 Healthy or Overweight10.8%8.3% 0.0820.013
 Obese or Severe Obese20.0%23.4% 0.0840.054
 Others68.1%67.6% 0.0100.061
Comorbid Conditions
 Prior Stroke26.9%23.9%0.040.0670.011
 Prior Major Bleeding25.8%23.9%0.20.0440.042
 Diabetes48.9%48.0%0.60.0180.066
 Prior AMI6.9%5.0%0.010.0820.103
 Liver Disease3.6%2.5%0.070.0590.126
 Heart Failure45.0%29.7%< 0.0010.3200.274
 Hypertension95.1%93.0%0.010.0890.088
 Ischemic Cardiomyopathy53.4%46.4%< 0.0010.1400.110
 Pulmonary Circulatory Disease15.6%11.0%< 0.0010.1350.083
 COPD35.7%31.0%0.0030.10.115
 Blood Transfusion3.2%2.4%0.180.0440
 Revascularization16.8%14.5%0.050.0630.075
 Implantable cardiac device15.5%13.1%0.040.0680.011
 Valve Disease44.1%40.0%0.0150.0830.024
Concurrent Drugs (+/− 90 days of initiating DOAC)
 SSRI/SNRI34.0%30.0%0.010.0850.126
 Strong and moderate p-gp inhibitors7.3%12.9%< 0.0010.1880.135
 Warfarin19.9%24.0%0.0040.0990.237
 Strong p-gp and cyp3a4 dual inhibitors17.0%18.2%0.30.03250.032
 ACE inhibitors68.4%67.2%0.450.02570.081
 Angiotensin receptor blockers38.6%38.1%0.80.00940.010
 Beta blockers90.7%88.4%0.030.07590.108
 Calcium channel blockers65.5%63.2%0.150.04880.040
 Digoxin32.1%28.7%0.030.07410.002
 Proton pump inhibitors58.7%55.2%0.040.07070.008
 NSAIDs48.3%50.4%0.20.04330.04
 Antiplatelets30.5%25.7%0.00150.10640.093
 Insulin14.5%12.1%0.030.0720.137
 Statins79.1%78.7%0.80.0090.079
Renal Disease  < 0.001  
 None or Mild33.6%57.2% 0.4890.255
 Moderate (GFR 30–60 ml/min/1.73 m2)66.4%42.8%   
Severe (GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2)0.0%0.0%   
  1. Abbreviations: ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme, AMI Acute myocardial infarction, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICD International classification of diseases, NSAIDS Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, P-GP P-glycoprotein, CYP Cytochrome