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Table 2 Characteristics of patients taking standard (20 mg) or reduced (15 mg) dose rivaroxaban

From: Characteristics and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving direct oral anticoagulants in off-label doses

 Reduced Dose
(15 mg daily)
Standard Dose
(20 mg daily)
P-value
Total number of patients646713,245 
Age Category, years  < 0.001
 65–697.9%18.2% 
 70 to 7414.8%29.0% 
 75 to 7920.7%25.6% 
 80 to 8425.4%17.0% 
 85 to 8919.8%7.8% 
 90 or over11.4%2.4% 
Sex  < 0.001
 Female57.1%46.2% 
 Male42.9%53.8% 
Race Category  < 0.001
 White85.2%85.8% 
 Black9.0%8.0% 
 Hispanic2.2%1.6% 
 Asian0.8%0.8% 
 Other2.8%3.8% 
 Smoking20.2%22.8%< 0.001
 Alcohol2.3%3.2%< 0.001
Weight Category (based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for BMI Category)  < 0.001
 Under-Weight2.3%1.3% 
 Healthy or Overweight19.1%14.3% 
 Obese or Severe Obese26.2%31.2% 
 Not available52.4%53.2% 
Comorbid Conditions
 Prior Stroke28.2%22.4%< 0.001
 Prior major bleeding from Diagnosis26.6%23.9%< 0.001
 Gastrointestinal bleeding15.2%13.5%0.002
 Cerebral bleeding1.3%0.8%< 0.001
 Diabetes51.0%47.7%< 0.001
 Prior AMI9.0%5.7%< 0.001
 Liver Disease2.9%3.1%0.35
 Heart Failure35.6%24.3%< 0.001
 Hypertension94.6%92.1%< 0.001
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy47.7%40.2%< 0.001
 Pulmonary15.9%11.1%< 0.001
 COPD36.3%31.4%< 0.001
 Transfusion from Procedure5.0%2.3%< 0.001
 Revascularization16.5%13.7%< 0.001
 Implantable Devices16.7%12.5%< 0.001
 Valve Disease40.6%36.4%0.002
Renal Disease (ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes)  < 0.001
 None or Mild (Stage I, II)54.8%83.9% 
 Moderate (Stage III)37.5%14.5% 
 Severe (Stage IV, V)7.7%1.5% 
Concurrent Drugs (+/− 90 days of initiating DOAC)
 SSRI/SNRI33.7%29.1%< 0.001
 Strong and moderate P-GP inhibitors18.3%18.5%0.63
 P-GP inducers18.5%16.5%< 0.001
 Strong P-GP and CYP3A4 dual inhibitors22.7%20.8%0.002
 P-GP and CYP3A4 inducers18.5%16.5%< 0.001
 ACE inhibitors67.4%64.3%< 0.001
 Warfarin15.0%16.1%0.045
 Angiotensin receptor blockers40.0%36.7%< 0.001
 Beta blockers88.1%86.5%0.015
 Calcium channel blockers64.5%59.4%< 0.001
 Digoxin23.1%20.8%< 0.001
 Proton pump inhibitors58.3%52.3%< 0.001
 NSAIDs52.9%50.1%< 0.001
 Antiplatelets30.2%24.3%< 0.001
 Insulin14.3%10.8%< 0.001
 Statins79.3%77.6%0.006
 Antiarrhythmics40.4%43.1%< 0.001
Estimated Glomerular Filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2)  < 0.001
  < 307.5%1.3% 
 30–6061.1%35.2% 
 60–9028.8%56.7% 
  > =902.6%6.8% 
CCI(Charlson Comorbodity Index), mean (standard deviation)5.05(3.65)3.71(3.34)< 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme, AMI Acute myocardial infarction, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICD International classification of diseases, NSAIDS Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, P-GP P-glycoprotein, CYP Cytochrome