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Table 5 Characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without perivalvular abscess

From: Higher incidence of perivalvular abscess determines perioperative clinical outcome in patients undergoing surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis

 - Perivalvular abscess (n = 275)+ Perivalvular abscess (n = 148)P value
Age64.3 [50.6–72.9]65.0 [50.3–74.0]0.778
Female sex61 (22.3%)43 (29.1%)0.122
BMI25.8 [23.5–28.3]25.4 [23.4–28.7]0.597
BSA1.98 [1.83–2.12]1.96 [1.74–1.96]0.309
COPD26 (9.5%)14 (9.5%)0.999
Diabetes78 (28.4%)39 (26.4%)0.659
Peripheral vascular disease17 (6.2%)18 (12.2%)0.033
Preoperative AKI156 (56.7%)90 (60.8%)0.417
Coronary artery disease71 (25.8%)46 (31.1%)0.248
Immunosuppression3 (1.1%)4 (2.7%)0.229
HIV6 (2.2%)4 (2.7%)0.739
Alcohol abuse26 (9.5%)15 (10.1%)0.821
Intravenous drug abuse19 (6.9%)9 (6.1%)0.774
History of neoplasm27 (9.8%)16 (10.8%)0.747
LVEF
< 30%4 (1.5%)5 (3.4%)0.201
30–50%61 (22.8%)33 (22.4%)0.942
> 50%203 (75.7%)109 (74.1%)0.809
MICROBIOLOGY
 Positive Blood culture224 (89.6%)119 (84.4%)0.132
 Streptococcus spp.69 (25.1%)26 (17.6%)0.077
 Staphylococcus spp.83 (30.2%)51 (34.5%)0.367
 Staph aureus61 (22.2%)33 (22.3%)0.978
 CoNS23 (8.4%)19 (12.8%)0.142
 Enterococcus spp.39 (14.2%)22 (14.9%)0.849
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
 Vegetation226 (82.5%)110 (74.8%)0.062
Leftsided IE
 Aortic valve136 (49.5%)113 (76.4%)< 0.001
 Mitral valve154 (56.0%)50 (33.8%)< 0.001
Rightsided IE
 Tricuspid valve19 (6.9%)4 (2.7%)0.069
 Pulmonary valve1 (0.7%)1 (0.4%)0.663
SYMPTOMS
 Fever169 (61.5%)107 (72.3%)0.026
 Sepsis136 (49.5%)84 (56.8%)0.152
 IE-related neurologic complications85 (30.9%)43 (29.1%)0.692
 Septic embolism99 (36.1%)47 (32.2%)0.658
 Cardiogenic shock31 (11.3%)25 (16.9%)0.104
OPERATION
 Operation time (min)195 [155–245]230 [178–314]< 0.001
 CPB time (min)106 [83–142]138 [100–182]< 0.001
 Crossclamp time (min)69 [53–95]87 [67–115]< 0.001
30-DAY OUTCOME
 30-day mortality22 (8.0%)26 (17.7%)0.003
 Myocardial infarction1 (0.4%)1 (0.7%)0.663
 New pacemaker *20 (7.3%)23 (15.5%)0.007
 New postoperative cerebrovascular events11 (4.0%)13 (8.8%)0.042
 Postoperative AKI91 (33.1%)67 (45.6%)0.012
 Re-exploration for bleeding43 (15.7%)28 (18.9%)0.398
 Tracheostomy33 (12.0%)26 (17.7%)0.108
 Time of ventilation (h)19.8 [12.0–68.9]26.6 [12.3–117.6]0.118
 ICU stay (d)4.0 [2.0–8.0]5.0 [2.0–10.0]0.103
 Hospital stay (d)12.0 [9.0–17.0]12.0 [9.0–17.0]0.992
1-YEAR OUTCOME
 1-year mortality35 (22.3%)18 (20.9%)0.806
 Re-admission to hospital86 (58.5%)44 (55.0%)0.610
 Relapse of endocarditis10 (6.9%)4 (5.3%)0.631
 AKI during follow-up23 (15.9%)14 (18.2%)0.659
  1. Data presented as number (percent) or median [IQR], respectively. AKI, acute kidney injury; BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; ICU, intensive care unit; IE, infective endocarditis; IQR, interquartile range; *for higher AV-grade