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Table 2 Manifestation of IE according to the modified Duke Criteria

From: Higher incidence of perivalvular abscess determines perioperative clinical outcome in patients undergoing surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis

 ENTIRE COHORTPROPENSITY MATCHED COHORT
NVE (n = 315)PVE (n = 103)P valueNVE (n = 315)PVE (n = 103)P value
MICROBIOLOGY
 Positive Blood culture263(83.5%)77(74.8%)0.27965(82.3%)58(73.4%)0.505
Streptococcus spp84(26.7%)10(9.7%)< 0.00120(25.3%)8(10.1%)0.011
Staphylococcus spp98(31.1%)35(34.0%)0.58720(25.3%)24(30.4%)0.478
Staph. aureus74(23.5%)19(18.4%)0.28516(20.3%)15(19.0%)0.841
CoNS26(8.3%)16(15.5%)0.0335(6.3%)9(11.4%)0.263
Enterococcus spp44(14.0%)17(16.5%)0.52715(19.0%)16(20.3%)0.841
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
 Vegetation259(82.2%)73(70.9%)0.01765(82.3%)59(74.7%)0.307
 Vegetation length (cm)1.6[1.1–2.0]1.2[0.8–1.7]0.0091.5± 0.61.3± 0.70.357
Leftsided IE
Aortic valve166(52.7%)81(78.6%)< 0.00152(65.8%)58(73.4%)0.299
Mitral valve171(54.3%)26(25.2%)< 0.00123(29.1%)26(32.9%)0.606
Rightsided IE
Tricuspid valve21(6.7%)1(1.0%)0.0466(7.6%)1(1.3%)0.053
Pulmonary valve1(0.3%)1(1.0%)0.4390(0%)1(1.3%)0.238
Perivalvular infection
Perivalvular abscess85(27.0%)62(60.2%)< 0.00121(26.6%)41(51.9%)0.001
Perforation83(26.3%)21(20.4%)0.22410(12.7%)19(24.1%)0.064
Fistula1(0.3%)13(12.6%)< 0.0011(1.3%)10(12.7%)0.005
SYMPTOMS
 Fever201(63.8%)72(69.9%)0.25960(75.9%)55(69.6%)0.371
 Sepsis233(74.0%)68(66.0%)0.11941(51.9%)38(48.1%)0.633
 IE-related neurologic complications99(31.4%)28(27.2%)0.41623(29.1%)22(27.8%)0.860
TIA13(4.1%)1(1.0%)0.1223(3.8%)0(0%)0.305
Stroke47(14.9%)17(16.5%)0.69811(13.9%)14(17.7%)0.513
Intracranial bleeding5(1.6%)3(2.9%)0.3941(1.3%)3(3.8%)0.311
Other33(10.5%)7(6.8%)0.2708(10.1%)5(6.3%)0.385
 Septic embolism115(36.5%)29(28.2%)0.18825(31.6%)24(30.4%)0.239
 Cardiogenic shock46(14.6%)9(8.7%)0.1267(8.9%)8(10.1%)0.786
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation, number (percent) or median [IQR], respectively. d, days; IE infective endocarditis; IQR, interquartile range; TIA, transient ischemic attack