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Table 3 Association of cumulative social risk with risk of combined all-cause mortality or CVD outcomes, with adjustment for a) traditional CVD risk factors, b) further adjustment for PM2.5 or BC in mediation analyses. (N = 1622, N cases = 137)

From: Association between cumulative social risk, particulate matter environmental pollutant exposure, and cardiovascular disease risk

a) Traditional CVD risk factors
 CSR = 1 vs. CSR = 0CSR ≥ 2 vs. CSR = 0Test for trend
 AdjustmentHR (95% CI)Chi-2HR (95% CI)Chi-2HR (95% CI)Chi-2
 Age & sex1.67 (1.06,2.63)4.802.85(1.84,4.40)22.281.69(1.36,2.10)22.75
 Model 11.68 (1.06,2.65)4.932.60(1.67,4.04)18.061.61(1.29,2.00)18.40
 Model 21.66(1.05,2.62)4.672.45(1.57,3.82)15.601.56(1.25,1.94)15.84
 Model 31.56(0.99,2.48)3.652.20(1.40,3.45)11.831.48(1.18,1.84)11.97
 Model 41.57(0.99,2.48)3.692.24(1.42,3.52)12.041.49(1.19,1.86)12.18
 Full Model1.59(1.01,2.52)3.962.34(1.48,3.68)13.321.52(1.22,1.91)13.47
b) Mediation analyses
 Full Model + PM2.51.54(0.97,2.45)3.352.16(1.34,3.49)9.921.47(1.16,1.86)10.05
 Full Model + BC1.56(0.99,2.48)3.612.25(1.42,3.58)11.901.50(1.19,1.88)12.04
  1. Model 1 = Age & Sex + Smoking
  2. Model 2 = Model 1 + SBP
  3. Model 3 = Model 2 + Diabetes
  4. Model 4 = Model 3 + BMI
  5. Full Model = Model 4 + lipid markers (total cholesterol, HDL-c, TG)
  6. The degree of attenuation in the association between CSR and risk of combined all-cause mortality and CVD outcomes when adjusting for PM2.5 was comparable to the effect of adjustment for SBP
  7. Mediation analyses indicate that PM2.5 explained 13% of the relative risk of CVD and all cause mortality in individuals with CSR score ≥ 2 (compared to those with CSR score = 0). The corresponding value for BC was 7%