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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants included in study by categories of cumulative social risk*

From: Association between cumulative social risk, particulate matter environmental pollutant exposure, and cardiovascular disease risk

VariableNOverall N = 1933CSR = 0 N = 661CSR = 1 N = 565CSR = 2 N = 429CSR ≥ 3 N = 278p-value
Age (years)193359.0 (7.5)59.9 (7.3)59.0 (7.7)57.8 (7.4)58.9 (7.4)< 0.0001
Sex (male)1933664 (34.4)295 (44.7%)204 (36.1%)88 (20.5%)77 (27.7%)< 0.0001
Components of cumulative social risk
Race (minority)1933854 (44.2)0 (0.0%)247 (43.7%)331 (77.0%)276 (99.3%)< 0.0001
Income (< low income)1933556 (28.8)0 (0.0%)98 (17.3%)183 (42.6%)275 (98.9%)< 0.0001
Single living1933823 (42.6)0 (0.0%)209 (37.0%)339 (78.8%)275 (98.9%)< 0.0001
Education (<high school)193344 (2.3)0 (0.0%)11 (1.9%)7 (1.6%)26 (9.4%)< 0.0001
Environmental pollutants
PM2.5 (ug/m3)166115.9 (0.8)15.6 (0.7)15.8 (0.7)16.0 (0.7)16.3 (0.8)< 0.0001
BC (Abs)16611.2 (0.1)1.1 (0.1)1.2 (0.1)1.2 (0.1)1.2 (0.1)< 0.0001
Cardiovascular risk factors
Current smoking1928212 (11.0)43 (6.5%)45 (8.0%)64 (14.9%)60 (21.6%)< 0.0001
Systolic BP (mmHg)1931136.8 (19.7)133.7 (18.5)136.0 (18.6)138.2 (21.1)143.7 (20.8)< 0.0001
Diabetes (%)1923199 (10.3)37 (5.6%)49 (8.7%)54 (12.6%)59 (21.3%)< 0.0001
Hypertension (%)1930819 (42.4)199 (30.2%)230 (40.9%)222 (51.6%)168 (60.4%)< 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)191230.2 (6.3)28.4 (5.2)30.0 (6.3)31.1 (6.1)33.1 (7.8)< 0.0001
Total Cholesterol (mg/dl)1921213.1 (42.8)214.9 (41.5)214.1 (41.6)212.9 (43.6)207.0 (46.7)0.076
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)192157.6 (15.0)56.8 (15.5)57.3 (14.3)59.1 (15.1)57.7 (15.1)0.086
  1. *Values are mean (SD) or N (%)
  2. Minority = Blacks in this study; PM2.5 = particles with median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; BC = black carbon, CSR = cumulative social risk